Introductory Material (main file)

The Pearl (separate file) 1
Cleanness (separate file) 37
Patience (separate file) 89


Note that I and J are listed separately, while all initial U except the one-letter word “u” are listed under V. As explained in the editor’s List of Abbreviations, the letters A, B, C refer respectively to The Pearl, Cleanness and Patience. Except for cross-references (“See...”), all links are to these external files.

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M 
 N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   UV   W   Y   Ȝ 


Abate, lessen, put an end to, A. 123; B. 1356.

Abate, abode, A. 617.

Abayst, downcast, abashed, B. 149, pret. of abaisse or abash, Fr. esbahir.

Able, A. 599.

Abof, above, A. 1023.

Abominacione, B. 1173.

Abroched, commenced, A. 1123.

Abyde, (a) await, A. 436, 486; (b) endure, B. 7. A.S. abidan.

Abydyng, sb. C. 419.

Abyme, abyss, A. 363; B. 143.

Abyt, habit, dress, B. 141.


agreement, A. 509, Fr. accorder, to agree with.

Achaped, escaped, B. 970.

Achaufe, kindle, B. 1143.

Acheue, accomplish, A. 475.

Acroche, encroach, A. 1069, Fr. accrocher, to hook on; from croc, a hook.

Adaunt = daunt, A. 157.

Adoun, down, A. 988; B. 953.

Adreȝ, aside, aback, B. 71. The word is used by Gower under the form adrigh. O-dreghe, one-dreghe, 117b are other forms of the word. Sc. on-dreich.

“The tother withdrewe, one-dreghe

And durste do none other.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 352.)

“The tother droȝhe him o-dreghe for drede of the knyȝte.”

(Anturs of Arther, xliv. 3.)

“He with drogh hym a draght & a dyn made.”

(T. B. 1224.)


adornment, A. 84, 85, O.Fr. adoubement; dober, douber, garnish, deck; Fr. douber, to rig or trim a ship; Prov. Fr. adobar, to arrange, prepare.

Adyte, A. 349.

Affraye, sb. fear, A. 1174; vb. frighten, B. 1780; Fr. effrayer, to scare, affright; effroi, terror. Cf. fray, to scare birds.

Affyen, trust, C. 331.


against, B. 266, 826, 1711.

Agayneȝ, towards, B. 611.

Agayn-tote, sb. a looking back, B. 931. Tote, look, peep, as a 118 verb or a noun, is common in Old English writers.

“She went up wightly by a wall syde,

To the toppe of a tower, & tot ouer the water.”

(T. B. 862.)

Age, A. 412, B. 426.

Aglyȝte, slipped from, A. 245. Glyȝt, as a verb, signifies not only to slip but to glance, look. Cf. leme = gleam, glance, slip.

Alabaunderynes, B. 1470.

Alarom, alarm, B. 1207.

Al-bare, clearly, A. 1025.

Alce = als, also, B. 1377.

Alder = elder, A. 621, Aldest, A. 1042, B. 1333.

Alder-men, elders, A. 887.

Alegge, alledge, A. 703.

Aliche, alike, B. 1477.

Alkaran = alkatran, B. 1035.

Alle-kynneȝ, all kinds of, A. 1028.

Allyt = a lyt = ? a little, B. 599.

Almyȝt, almighty, A. 498.

Alofte, on high, B. 1183.

Al-one, A. 933.

Al-only, except, A. 779.

Alosed, destroyed, B. 274. See lose.

Alow, approve, praise, reward, A. 634. O.Fr. louer. Lat. laudare.

Aloynte, removed, far from (from O.E. aloigne, alogne, to remove, carry off. O.Fr. aloigner).

Aloȝ, alow, softly, B. 670.

Als, also, A. 253, 827, B. 516.

Also, as, B. 984, 1045, 1792.


at once, immediately, B. 64. See tyd.


Al-þaȝ, although, A. 759.

Alþer-fayrest, fairest of all, B. 1379.

Alþer-fynest, finest of all, B. 1637.

Alþer-rychest, richest of all, B. 1666.

Alþer-swettest, sweetest of all, B. 699.

Alum, B. 1035.

Amaffised, B. 1470.

Amaraunȝ, B. 1470.

Amatyst, amethyst, A. 1016.

Ame, (1) vb. place, A. 698; (2) sb. purpose, B. 128. Germ. ahmen. Bavarian, amen, hämen, to guage a cask, fathom, measure.

Amended, B. 248.

Amesyng, sb. moderation, C. 400. See mese.

Amoneste, admonish, B. 818.

Amounted, B. 395.

Amoynt, company, A. 895.

And = an, if, B. 864.

An-ende (on-ende), lastly, finally, A. 186.

An-ende = anente, opposite, A. 1136; respecting, A. 697.

An-endeȝ = anentes, opposite, A. 975. Sc. anens.

Anger, A. 343, B. 572.

Angré, bitter, B. 1035.

Anguych, anguish, C. 325.

Ankreȝ, anchors, A. 418, B. 103.

Anon, at once (= anane, onane, in one moment), A. 584.

Anournement, ornament, B. 1290.

Anoynted, B. 1446.

Answar, answer, A. 518.

Anter, peril, C. 242. To aunter, put a thyng in daunger, or adventure, adventurer (Palsgrave).


An-vnder, under, A. 1081. Sc. anonder. Cf. down and adown, low and alow.

Aparaunt, B. 1007.

Apassed, past, A. 540.

Apert, openly, A. 589.

Apparaylmente, ornaments, A. 1052.

Apparement, ornaments, B. 1270. Fr. appareiller, to fit, suit.

Appose, vb. question, A. 902. Fr. apposer, to lay or set on, or near to.

Aproche, A. 686, B. 8, 167. Fr. approcher, draw near. Lat. prope, near.

Apyke, adorn, B. 1479, 1637.

Aquyle, demand, ask, obtain, A. 690, 966. O.Fr. aquillir, to gather.


A. 719, 1166; B. 816, 1442. O.Fr. arroyer, arréer, dispose, set in order.

Arayned, arraigned, C. 191. O.Fr. arraisonner, arraigner.

Are, before, previously, B. 438, 1128.

Arende, errand, message, C. 72, A.S. aerend, aerende.

Arest, sb. abode, resting place, B. 906.

Areset, vb. stop, cease, A. 766, remain, B. 144. Fr. arrester. Lat. arestare.

Arewarde, apostate, B. 208. Sc. areird, backward.


are, A. 458, 628, B. 8, 1810.

Aryue, A. 447.

Aryȝt, aright, A. 112.

Arȝe, terrify, frighten, fear, B. 572, 119b 713. Provincial arfe, arghe, afraid. Cf. “Arwe or ferefulle (arwhe, K. arowe or ferdfulle P.). Timidus, pavidus, formidolus.” (Prompt. Parv.) The original notion is that of laziness, inertness, and hence timidity, fear, etc. A.S. earg, inert, timid, weak. Ger. arg, bad. Du. erg. Icel. argr, lazy, cowardly. Sc. argh, arch, to hesitate, be reluctant.

“Antenor arghet with austerne wordes.”

(T. B. 1977.)

“Antenor, arghly auntrid of ship.”

(T. B. 1831.)

“A! Anec. quoth the qwene

me arȝes of my selfe,

I am all in aunter, sa

akis me the wame.”

(K. Alex. p. 29.)

“Sir Alexander and his ost was arȝed unfaire.”

(Ibid. p. 132.)

Ar, are, B. 1725.

Are ? ane, one, A. 711.

As, also, B. 179.

As-bare, ? al bare, clearly, openly, A. 836.

Asayl, B. 1188.

Ascape, escape, B. 569.

Ascry, sb. cry, outcry, A. 1784. vb. B. 195. Swed. anskri, outcry, scream. O.N. skri, cry.


A. 391, “in asent,” B. 788.

Askeȝ, ashes, B. 626.

Askry, shout, cry, B. 1206. See ascry.

Aslypped, escaped, lost, C. 218.

Aspaltoun, asphalt, B. 1038.

Asperly, sharply, C. 373.


Assayl, C. 301.

Asscaped, escaped, B. 1776.

Asscry, cry, shout. See ascry.

Assemble, B. 1364, 1769.

Assemblé, A. 760.

Asspye, espy, see, A. 704, 1035.


form, fashion, A. 97, A. 844, service, B. 639.

Astate, state, A. 393.

Astraye, A. 1162.

Astel, stole from, B. 1524.

As-tyt, immediately, at once, A. 645, B. 935.

Asure, B. 1411.

Aswage, A. 3.

At, that, A. 672.

Atlyng, purpose, B. 688. Sc. ettle, to endeavour. N.Prov.E. ettle, attle, intend. Icel. aetla.

“Armur & all thing atlet before.”

(T. B., 855.)

Aþel, noble, A. 258, 411, 940, gracious, A. 761, fine, B. 1276, A.S. aeþele, noble, excellent.

Atount, so much (?), A. 179.

At-slyke, slip away, A. 575.

Atteny, attain, reach, A. 548.

Attled, endeavoured. See atlyng.

Attled, endowed, B. 207. It sometimes occurs under the form aghteld. N.Prov.E. ettle, to deal out, distribute. A.S. aeht, possession.

“She was eldist & heire etlit to his londes.”

(T. B. 394.)

At-wappe, escape, B. 1205. See Wap.

Atyre, B. 114.

Augoste, august, A. 39.

Auncetereȝ, auncestors, B. 258.


own, B. 11, 1222.

Aunte, A. 233.

Aunter, adventure, marvel, B. 1600. See T. B. 1899.

Auter, altar, B. 10.

Autly, noble, B. 795. A.S. áhtlíce, courageously, manfully.

Avaunt, sb. promise, B. 664.

Avayment, show, B. 1358. F. avoier.

Auaye, show, B. 1311.

Auenture, adventure, A. 64. O.Fr. aventure.

Auise, advise, B. 1365.

Avow, B. 664.

Avoy, away! B. 863.

Avyle, defile, B. 1151, 1713.

Avysyoun, vision, A. 1184.

Awayed, shown, A. 710.

Awayle, avail, B. 408.

Awowe, avow, C. 333.

Ay, always, ever, A. 33, 720. A.S. áva, a, all, ever. O.Fris. a. Germ. je, ever.

Ayre, heir, B. 650, 1709.

Ayþer, each, A. 831.

Aywhere, everywhere, B. 228.

Aȝer = asure, B. 1457.

Aȝly = awly, fearfully, B. 874, 937. Dan. ave, fear. Eng. awe. O.Eng. agh. Cf. A.S. aglác, misery, grief.


ought, pret. of aȝe, agh, or awe, B. 122.

Aȝt, eight, A. 357, B. 11, 29.

Aȝt-sum, sorrowful, B. 411.

Aȝtþe, eighth, A. 1011.


Baboyne, baboon, B. 1409.

Babtem, A. 627. See Baptem.


Bachlereȝ, batchelors, young men not yet raised to the order of knighthood, B. 86.

Baft, abaft, C. 148. A.S. baefta, the hinder part.

Bagge, baggage. C. 158

Bale, bales, C. 157. Sw. bal. Fr. balle, bal, a ball or pack.

Bale, sorrow, woe; also misery, calamity, A. 18, 373; A. 1243, 1256; baleȝ, A. 123, 807. O.Fris. bale. A.S. bealu, torment, destruction. Icel. böl. Phrases: “bodyly bale” (pain), A. 478; “bale (torment) of helle,” A. 651, “bale-stour,” death pang, B. 426.

Baleleȝ = baleless, innocent, C. 227.

Balke, ridge of land, balk, A. 62. Icel. balkr, the division between the stalls in a cow-house. Sw. balka, to partition off.

“To my shepe wylle I stalk, and herkyn anone,

Ther abyde on a balk, or sytt on a stone.”

(Town. Myst. p. 99.)

Balleful = baleful, wretched, wicked, B. 979.

Balter, hop, jump, skip, C. 459.

Balterande, halting, limping, B. 103. Sc. balter, to dance.

“He baltyrde, he bleryde.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 66.)

Etymologically it is connected with palter and falter, and is applicable either to the unsteady gait of the lame or faltering steps of the blind.

Baly = bayly, authority, jurisdiction, dominion, A. 1083.


Baneres, B. 1404.

Banne, proclamation, decree, B. 95, 1361.

Banne, curse, B. 468, 885. Sw. bann, excommunication; banna, to reprove, chide, curse.

Bannet worthe the bale tyme þat ho borne was.”

T. B. 1388.

Banne, comfort, strengthen, B. 620. O.Sc. bawne.

Bantel, A. 991, 1017; B. 1459, posts, pillars.

Baptem, baptism, A. 627, 653.

Baptysed, A. 818.

Barayn, barren, B. 659.

Bare, adj. naked, B. 452; sb. 791.

Bare, only, B. 1573. Sw. bara.

Bared, disclosed, B. 1149.

Bare-heued, bare-headed, B. 633.


bars, barriers, A. 963, 1239; B. 321. W. bar, rail, shaft. Fr. barre; barrière, a barrier. Cf. Sw. s-parre. Eng. s-par.

Barme, bosom, C. 510. A.S. bearm. “Barme gremium.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“He fond Horn in arme

On Rymenhilde barme.”

(K. Horn, p. 294.)

Barnage, childhood, B. 517.

Barne, child, son, A. 426; barneȝ, A. 1040; B. 1085. Sc. bairn. A.S. bearn.

Baronage, nobility, B. 1424. See T. B. 211.

Barouneȝ, barons, B. 82, 1398.


bars, B. 884, 1263.

Barst, burst, B. 963.


base, foundation, A. 1000, B. 1278. See T. B. 1652.

Bassyn, basin, B. 1145, 1278.

Bastele, B. 1187. “Bastyle of a castelle or cytye. Fascennia.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Basyng, base, A. 992.

Bated, abated, B. 440.

Bater, B. 1416.

Batelment, B. 1459.

Baþe, dip, plunge, B. 1248.

Bausen, badger, B. 392. “Bawstone or bawsone, or a gray, Taxus, melota.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Bawelyne, bow-line, B. 417.

Bay, recess, B. 1392. The original meaning seems to be opening of any kind. Cf. bay, space in a building between two main beams (Forby).

Bayly, dominion, A. 315, 442.

Bayn, adv. readily, willingly, A. 807, A. 1511; ready, B. 136. N.Prov.E. bane, near, convenient. “Beyn or plyaunte. Flexibilis.” (Prompt. Parv.) Bainly, readily, T. B. 135.

Baysment, abasement, A. 174.

Bayte, B. 55. O.N. beita.

Baytayled, fortified, B. 1183.

Beauté, A. 749.


bid, command, invite; p.p. beden, A. 715, B. 95, 440. See T. B. 389.

Beke, beak, B. 487.

Bekyrande, sb. bikering, fighting, B. 1474. “Bekyryn or fyghtyn (bikkeringe), Pugno, dimico.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“Bolde men to batell and biker with hond.”

T. B. 2944.


Bele, vb. boil, A. 18. N.Prov.E. bele.

Bem, beam, ray, “bem of þe brode heuen,” B. 603.

Bem, tree, A. 814.


are, 3rd pers. pl. A572.

Bench, seat, B. 130, 854.

Bene, fair, A. 198.

Bene, adj. kind, merciful, C. 418.

Bent, field, plain, B. 532, 1675. See T. B. 1192.

Ber, bore, pret. of bere, to bear, A. 426, B. 1480.

Berdles, beardless, B. 789.

Bereste, breast, A. 854.

Berfray, watch tower, B. 1187. O.F. berfroi, beffroit. Fr. beffroir. M.Lat. belfredum. The modern English belfry is a corruption of berfray.

Beryl, A. 110, 1011.

Beryng, condition, state, behaviour, B. 1060, 1228.

Best, beast, B. 288, 351.

Beste, sb. best (one), A. 279.

Besten, of beasts, B. 1446.

Bete, (the fire) mend, repair, kindle, A. 627, p.p. bet, B. 1012. Prov.E. beat, to mend, repair. A.S. bétan, (1) to improve, repair; (2) joined with fyr to mend a fire, to light or make a fire, to kindle.

Bete, save, A. 757. A.S. bétan, to remedy. Du. boeten, mend, fine, expiate.

Betȝ = bes, shall be, A. 611. Present tense with future signification.

Beuerage, drink, liquor, B. 1433, 123 1717. Fr. beuvrage, from Lat. bibere.

Bewar, beware, B. 292.

Bewté, A. 765.

Beyng, sb. being, existence, A. 446.

Bibbe, sip, drink, B. 1499. Prov.E. beb. Du. biberen, to drink much.

“Bacus he was brayne-wode for bebbing of wynes.”

(K. Alex. p. 154.)

Bicalt, becalled, called from, A. 1163.

“The kyng was full curteus, calt on a maiden.” 

(T. B. 388.)

Bi-cnv, acknowledged, B. 1327.

Bidde, bide, abide. C. 51.

Biden, p.p. of bide = abide, B. 616.


befal, A. 186.

Bifore, before, A. 49.


great, A. 43, bygger, B. 374.

Bigge, build, B. 1666. A.Sax. byggan. Icel. byggia. O.Sw. bygga, build, also inhabit.

Bigly, strongly, C. 321. See T. B. 904.

Bigonne, began, B. 123.

Bihynde, behind, B. 918.

Biholde, behold, B. 150.

Bihyȝt, promised, C. 29.

Bikenne, give, hand over, B. 1296.

Bilde, built, B. 1392.

Bileue, remain, B. 1549.

Bilooghe, below, B. 116.

Birle, pour out, B. 1511. Prov.E. burl. A.S. byrelian, to give to drink.

“And seruanz war at this bridale

That birled win in cupp and schal.”

(Met. Hom. p. 120.)


Birolled, berolled, B. 959.

Biseche, beseech, B. 614.

Bisoȝten, besought, C. 375.

Bispeke, speak, C. 169.

Bisyde, beside, B. 926.

Bi-talt, aroused, A. 1161. A.S. tealtian, tealtrian; (1) to tilt, shake; (2) to be in danger. William of Shoreham uses one form of this word:

“For ȝef that water his kende lest

That cristninge stant te-tealte.”

(Poems, p. 9.)

“For if that water its kind loseth,

That christening standeth tottery, insecure” (i.e. not binding).

Biteche, give up to, entrust to, B. 871; pret. bitaȝt.

Bited, bit, C. 373.


bethink, B. 1357.

Biþoȝt, bethought, B. 125.

Bityde, betide; pret. bitydde, C. 61

Bityde, befall, B. 1804.

Blade, B. 1105.

Blake, black, A. 945; B. 747, 1449.

Blame, vb. A. 275; A. 877, 1661; sb. B. 43.

Blande, “in blande,” together, B. 885. See blende.


B. 1661, 1712.

Blayke, yellow, A. 27. Brockett has blayke with the sense of yellow, of a golden colour. “Bleyke of coloure.” Pallidus, subalbus. (Prompt. Parv.)

“Ther (in paradyse) were floures bothe blew and blake,

Of alle frutes thei myth ther take.”

(Cov. Myst. p. 2.)


Blaȝt, white, A. 212, p.p. of bleach, just as raȝt is of reach. Sc. blaucht.

“As blaȝt ere thaire wedis

As any snyppand snawe.”

(K. Alex. p. 54.)

Ble, colour, complexion, A. 76, 212; B. 791, 1759. Prov.E. ble, bly. A.S. bleo.

Bleaunt, a robe of fine linen, A. 163. O.Eng. bliant, fine linen, W. llian, linen. The bl is merely an imitation of the Celtic ll.

“A blewe bleaunt obofe brade him al ovir.”

(K. Alex. p. 167.)

Blench, stratagem, device, B. 1202. O.N. blekkia.

Blemyst, blemished, B. 1421. O.Fr. blesmir.


blended, mingled, mixt. A. 385, 1016; B. 967, 1788. A.S. blendian. Icel. blanda, to mix.

Blo = bla, blue, livid, pale. A. 1017; B. 134. O.H.G. blao, N.Fris. bla. O.Sc. bla.


= blubber, waves, C. 221, 266. Prov.E. blubber, bubble; blob, bleb, a bubble. “Blobure (blobyre, P.) Burbulium.” (Prompt. Parv.) “Blober upon water (or bubble) bouteillis.” (Palsg.) “The water blubbers up.” (Baker, Northamptonshire Glossary.)

Blod, a child, B. 686. Supposing the bl to represent ll we might refer it to the W. llawd, a youth, 124b lad. O.Sw. g-lott. Cf. bliant, bleant, from W. llian.

“þis Abel was a blissid blod,

Bot Caim was the findes (devil’s) fode (offspring).”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 7b.)

Blod, blood, A. 650.

Blok, space, C. 272.


flower, bloom, A. 578, B. 1467. Sw. bloma, a flower. Du. bloeme. Ger. blume. “Blome flowre. Flos.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Blomeȝ, blooms, flowers, A. 27.

Blonk, horse, pl. blonkeȝ, B. 87, 1392. See T. B. 2371.

Blonkken, gen. pl. of horses, B. 1412.

Blosched, looked, C. 343. See Blusch.

Blose = blese, blaze, flame. A. 911. Icel. blossi, a flame. A.S. blaese, a torch. Dan. blus.

Blot, spot, blemish, defilement, A. 782.

“Ye ben worthy, he saide, to be blottede and spottede, foulede and defoulede with fenne (mire) and with drit of water (luto inquinari), and of blode, that in tyme of werre ne were nat be bespreynt, ne be wette with ennemyes blode.” (Quoted by Way, from Roy. MS. 18, A. xii. B. iii. c. 10.)

Blubrande = blubbering, bubbling, foaming, B. 1017. See blobber.

Blunt, rushed, C. 272.

Blunt, faint, A. 176. Icel. blunda, to sleep. Sw. blunda, to close the eyes. Dan. blende, to dazzle. Cf. “Blunt of wytte. Hebes.” (Prompt. Parv.)



look, glance, A. 980, 1083, B. 904, 998, 1537. N.Prov.E. blush, resemblance. Cf. “At the first blush,” at the first appearance, at first sight. Dan. blusse, to blaze, flame, glow. There seems to be an etymological connection with words signifying to look, glow, blaze, shine, etc.

“The kyng blyschit on the beryne (man) with his brode eghne.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 10.)

“He blusshed ouer backeward to þe brodesee.”

(See T. B. 1316.)


shining, B. 1404. Icel. blys. Dan. blus, a torch. Du. blos, redness. Dan. blusse, to glow. Icel. lysa, to shine. Pl.D. bleistern, to glisten.

Bluster, B. 886, to wander or stray about.

“Ac there was wight noon so wys

The wey thider kouthe,

But blustreden forth as beestes

Over bankes and hilles.”

(Piers Ploughman, p. 108.)

Blwe, blue, A. 423.

Blwe, blew, B. 885.

Blykked, shone, B. 603. A.S. blican, glitter, dazzle. Ger. blicken, shine, glance, look. Du. blicken, glitter; blick, a flash.

“Hire bleo blyketh so bryht

So feyr heo is ant fyn.”

(Lyric Poems, p. 52.)

Blyknande, shining, B. 1467.

Blykned = blaykned, became black, B. 1759.


Blynde, to become faded, dull, B. 1126.

Blynne, cease, A. 729, B. 440, 1661, 1812. A.S. blinnan (for be-linnan).


blissful, A. 279, 409.

Blysnande, shining, A. 163. See blusnande.

Blysned, shone, A. 1048.

Blyþe, joy, A. 354. Blythe is still used as a noun in the North of England.

Blyþely, joyfully, A. 385.

Bobaunce, boasting, Fr. bobance, B. 179, 1712.


command, A. 979; B. 56. A.S. bod, gebod, command, precept, message. “Bode or massage (boode, H.) nuncium.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Bod = abode, pret. of bide = abide, A. 62; A. 982; wait for, B. 467.

Bodworde, message, B. 473. See T. B. 6262.

Bodyly, A. 478.

Boffet, blast, B. 885.

Boffeteȝ, buffets, blows, A. 809; boffet, B. 43.

Bok-lered, book-learned, B. 1551.

Bold, bad, A. 806. A.S. báld, audacious. Sw. båld, proud, haughty, warlike. In early English writers the term was applied indifferently to men and women of bad character.

“Þou do me bote again þis bald (bad one)

For al þe soth I haf þe tald.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 48b.)


Bol, bull, A. 1682; pl. boleȝ, B. 55.

Bole, the round stem of a tree, A. 622. It enters also into composition in the word throte-bolle. Pl. bolleȝ, B. 76. Icel. bolr. Dan. bul. Sw. bål, trunk of a man’s body. See T. B. 4960.

Bolle, bowl, B. 1145, 1511. A.S. bolla. Icel. bolli.

Bolled, embossed, B. 1464.

Bolnande, swelling, B. 179.

Bolne, swell, A. 18; B. 363. Icel. bolgna. Sw. bulna, to swell. In some early English works we find bollen (ibolȝe) the p.p. of a verb bolȝe = bulge, swell. “Bolnyn, Tumeo, turgeo, tumesco.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Bonc, bank, A. 907.

Bone, prayer, petition, command (= boon). A. 912, 916; B. 826. A.S. ben. S.Sax. bone. O.N. bón rogatio. “Bone or graunte of prayer (boone P.) Precarium, peticio.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Bone, good, B. 28.


good, B. 733.

Bonerté, goodness, A. 762.

Bongre, willingly, agreeably to, C. 56. See Gre.

Bonk, bank, hill, A. 931, B. 379. Ger. bank, bench, bank of a river, etc.

Bor, bower, chamber, dwelling, A. 964. A.S. bur, a chamber. Icel. bur. N.Prov.E. boor, a parlour.

Bore, born, A. 239, B. 584.

Borde, table, B. 1433, 1717.


Borde, board of a vessel, A. 470; B. 211.

Boreȝ, boars, B. 55.

Borges, burgess; sometimes written burgeise, C. 366. O.Fr. bourgeois, from Lat. burgensis.

Borgoun, to burgeon, bud forth, B. 1042. Fr. bourgeon, bourjon, young bud or sprig. Prov. Fr. boure, bud. Fr. abourioner, to bud or sprout forth. See T. B. 4964.

Borlych, burly, B. 1488.

Borne = burne, stream, water, A. 482; borneȝ heued, head of the stream, source, B. 974. A.S. burne. Goth. brunna. Icel. brunnr. G. born, brunnen, well, spring.

Bornyst, burnished, A. 77, 220, B. 554. Fr. brunir, to polish.

Boroȝt = broȝt, brought, A. 628.


city, town, A. 957, 989, B. 45, 834, 1750. A.S. burg, burh. Goth. baurgs. Icel. borg.

Bos = bus = behoves, B. 687.

Bosk, take, A. 351; boske to, go to, B. 834. See Busk.

Boskeȝ, bushes, B. 322. Icel. buskr.

Bosum, bay, C. 107. Cf. N.Prov.E. bosom, the eddy.

“Eneas and his feris on the strand

Wery and forwrocht, sped thame to the nerrest land,

And at the cost of Lyby arryvit he.

Ane havyn place with a lang hals or entre

Thar is, with an ile enveronyt on ather part,

To brek the wallis and storm of every art,

Within, the water in a bosum gays.”

(G. Doug. vol. i. p. 33.)


Bost, boast, arrogance. B. 179, 1450.

Boster, boaster, B. 1499.

Bostwys = busteous, boisterous, rough, fierce, A. 814. Pl. Du. büster, wild, fearful, savage. Cf. “Boystows, rudis.” (Prompt. Parv.) Bustus, rudis, rigidus, to be bustus, rudere. (Cath. Angl.) The form bostwys would seem to point to bost, boast, as the probable root.

Bot, “to bot,” to boot, B. 473.

Bot, command, B. 944. A.S. beot, threat, promise.

Bot, only, A. 18, 382, except, A. 972; bot-if, unless, B. 1110.

Bote, saviour, A. 275, 645; remedy, safety, C. 163. A.S. bót, amends, atonement; gebétan, to make amends. Du. boet, remedy; boeten, to mend.

Boþe, booth, tent, C. 441.


valley, dale, A. 383, 450; pit, sea, B. 1030. Bottom, a valley, is still used in many of our provincial dialects, and is a frequent element in local names. A.S. botm, lowest point, depth, abyss. Du. bodem. Germ. boden. Icel. botn.

Bothem, bottom, C. 144.

Boþemleȝ, bottomless, B. 1022.


bowel, gut, A. 1251; B. 293.

Bougoun (?) B. 1416.

Boun, (1) ready; (2) finished, A. 534, 992, 1103. See T. B. 827. N.Prov.E. boun. Icel. bua, to prepare, p.p. buinn, prepared, ready.


Bounden, fastened, A. 322; bound (p.p. of binde), B. 1103.

Bounet, went, pret. of boun or bown, to go, B. 1398. See boun. See T. B. 827, 5230.

“And (he) bownnes over a brode mede

With breth (anger) at his herte.”

(M. Arthure, p. 290.)

Bounté, goodness, B. 1436.

Boureȝ (bowers), chambers. B. 322. See Bor.

Bourne = burne, man, A. 617.

Bourȝ = borȝ, city, B. 1377. See Borȝ.

Boute, without, A. 260, 824; B. 523.


to go, walk, literally, to bend (one’s steps). A. 126, 974; B. 45, 379, 482.

“Forth heo gunnen bugen

In to Bruttaine.”

(Laȝ. 2, 410.)

“The burd bowet from þe bede.”

(T. B. 775.)

A.S. búgan, to bow, bend, avoid, flee.

Bowe, obey (bend to), C. 56, 75.

Boy, a boy, youth, B. 878.

Boyeȝ, boys, men of low position, servants; generally used in a bad sense, “boyeȝ bolde,” A. 806.

“—— bot a boye one (alone)

Hoves by hym on a blonke (horse) and his spere holdes.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 211.)

“I wende no Bretones walde bee basschede for so lyttille

And fore bare-legyde boyes that one the bente houys.”

(Ibid. p. 178.)

Boȝ = bow, go, A. 196; B. 1242, 1551. See Bow.


Boȝe, bough, B. 616, 1467.

Boȝt, bought, A. 651.

Boȝted, curved, C. 449. A.S. bugan, to bend. Dan. bugt, bend, turn. Sc. bought, to fold, bend.

Brade, broad, A. 138.

Brake vp = break up, throw up, spew, C. 340. Ger. sich brechen. Du. braeken, to vomit. “Brakyn, or castyn or spewe. Vomo.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Braken (brake, bracken), fern, B. 1675, Sw. bräken, Dan. bregne, Icel. brok, sedge. “A brakane filix, a brakan, buske filicarium.” (Cath. Angl.)

Braste, burst, C. 148.

Brathe = breþe, anger, ire, also fierceness. A. 1170; B. 916. O.N. braedi, anger. It sometimes signifies angry.

“Bade hom blyn of hor brathe.”

(T. B. 5075.)

“For this word was Saul wrath,

For oft-sith was he bremli brath.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 42b.)

Braþeȝ, pl. of braþe, A. 346.

Braunches, B. 1464.

Braundysch, display, A. 346.

Bray, utter (aloud), roar, A. 346. Sw. bräka.

Brayde, brought, A. 712; aroused, awakened, A. 1170; “at a brayde,” at a start (Icel. at bragdi), at once, A. 539; “in a brayd,” in a moment, B. 1507. O.N. bregtha, weave, move, brandish, seize, awake, to leap, start. Bragth, quick motion. 128b

“Þe Philistienes wituten les

Ran on Sampson in a res,

Bot Sampson þat selcuth smert,

Ute o þair handes son he stert

And gave a braid sa fers and fast,

Þat alle þe bandes of him brast.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 40b.)

Brayden, ornamented, p.p. of braid, B. 1481.

Bred, bread, B. 636.


= breed, become, A. 1558; replenish, A. 415, 814; B. 257.

Brede, board, C. 184. “Brede or lytylle borde. Mensula, tabula, tabella, asserulus.” (Prompt. Parv.) A.S. bred, plank, board, etc.

Brede, breadth, A. 1030.

Brede, stretch out, A. 814.

Breed, bred, C. 143.

Bref, short, brief, A. 268.

Brek, broke, B. 1105, 1239.

Breme, full, complete, A. 863. A.S. breme, famous, glorious.

Breme, fierce, A. 346; A. 229; B. 430. Du. bremen, to burn with desire. Fris. brimme, to rage.

“A brem lowe.” (T. B. 860.)

Bremly, vigorously, B. 509.


= brente, burnt, bright, A. 989; B. 1292.

Brennande, burning, B. 1012.

Brenne, burn, B. 509, 916.

Brent, burnt, bright, A. 106.

Brent, steep; superl. brentest, highest, B. 379. N.Prov.E. brant, steep. Sw. brant, steep, a precipice. 129

“A man may syt on a brante hyll syde.”

(Ascham’s Toxoph. p. 58, ed. Arber.)

“Apon the bald Bucifelon brant up he sittes.”

(K. Alex. p. 124.)

“Thane come thai blesnande till a barme of a brent lawe (hill).”

(Ibid. p. 164.)

Brere, briar, B. 791, 1694. N.Prov.E. brere, breer. A.S. brér.

Bresed, rough, like bristles, shaggy (?), B. 1694. Cf. Sc. birs, birse, bristle.

Brest, attack, outburst, B. 229. N.Prov.E. birst, attack (Brockett). O.E. burst = injury, A.S. byrst.

Breste, to burst, B. 1783.


wind, C. 107, 138; smell, vapour, B. 509, 967. Cf. “brethe of smoke.” (Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience, l. 4727.) Sc. broth. Ger. brodem, broden, steam, vapour. A.S. bræth, an odour, scent, breath. “Brethe at his wille.” (T. B. 1945.)

Breth, wrath, B. 916. See Brath.

Breue, tell, A. 755.

Breve us thi name.” (K. Alex. p. 78.)

Breued, related, written, B. 197. O.N. brefa.

Breyþed, rushed, B. 1421. See Braid.

Brod, great; “brod wonder,” B. 584.

Brode, broad, A. 650.


brook, river, stream, A. 981; pl. brokeȝ. A. 1074, sea; C. 145. A.S. broca.


Brom (broom), heath, C. 392. A.S. bróm.

Bronch, branch, B. 487.

Bronde, sword, B. 1246. O.N. brandr.

Brond, brand, B. 1012.

Broþe, angry, fierce, rough, B. 149, 1409. The original form in O.E. is brathe. It is connected with brethe, brathe, anger, wrath.

“Wreth it es a brath on-fall (outburst)

Menging o mode that cums o galle.”

(The Deadly Sins, in Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)


fierce, rough, and hence vile, bad, A. 848, 1030; vilely, A. 1256; B. 474. The original form is braþly, fiercely, vigorously.

“Thoner o-loft fal sal he (Antichrist) gar,

And tres brathli blomes bere;

Brathli to do the see be reth (stormy)

And brathli to do it be smeth.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 124a.)

Broun, brown, A. 537, 990.

Browden, clustered, B. 1132.

Broȝt, brought, A. 286.

Brugge = brigge, bridge, B. 1187. A.S. bricge.

Brunt, blow, A. 174.

“All þat was bitten of the best (beast)

was at a brunt dede.”

(K. Alex. p. 134.)

Brurd, border, edge, B. 1474. Sc. breard. A.S. brerd, breard, briord, breord, brim, margin, rim, shore, brink.

Brurd-ful, brimful, full up to the brim, B. 383. Chaucer uses bret-ful in the same sense.


Brutage = bretage, parapets of a wall, ramparts, B. 1190. Fr. breteche.

Bruxle, upbraid, reprove, C. 345. O.N. bríxla, to reprove, reproach.

Brych, filth, uncleanness, B. 848. The meaning here assigned to brych is conjectural. Cf. Du. brack, refuse, damaged. Ger. brechen, to vomit, Bryche as an adjective occurs in Robt. Brunne’s “Handlyng Synne,” p. 182, where it is glossed low (loghe) i.e. vile.

“Now ys Pers bycome bryche

That er was bothe stoute and ryche.” In the Romance of Alexander, ed. Stevenson, we find the form bicchid = briched (?). Cf. shille and shrille, etc.

“And on the aȝtent day, eftire the prime

A basilisk in a browe, breis (annoys) thaim unfaire,

A straȝtill and a stithe worme stinkande of elde,

And es so bitter, and so breme, and bicchid (foul) in himselfe,

That with the stinke and the strenth he stroyes noȝt allane,

Bot quat he settes on his siȝt, he slaes in a stonde.”

(p. 165.)

Bryd, lady, A. 769. A.S. bryd, a bride, a wife, woman.

Brydde, bird, B. 288, 1482.

Brydale, wedding, marriage, B. 142.


bank, shore, A. 232, 1074. Dan. bremme.

Brymme, stream, water, B. 365. 130b A.S. brym, the sea. In this sense brymme seems to have been unknown to the Southern dialect.

“O þis water þat sua stanc

Wa was þam þat it nedings dranc,

Þat toþer oncom þat him felle,

Was frosse þat na tung moght telle,

Þat ute o brim and brokes bred,

And siþen over al Egypte spred.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 32b.)

Brynkeȝ, brinks, banks, B. 384.

Brynston, brimstone, B. 967.

Bryȝt, adj. bright, A. 110; sb. bright one, A. 755.

Bukkeȝ, bucks, B. 392.

Bulde, built, B. 1190.

Buleȝ, bulls, B. 392.

Bulk, stern of a ship. A.S. bolca, O.H.G. pl. balkun. Agiavia, loca per quæ ad remiges acceditur. (Graff. iii. p. 108.)


blow, assault, A. 176; C. 7. O.Sc. byr, a blow. N.Prov. birre, burr. W. bur, violence, rage. See Wicliffe, St. Luke, viii. 33.

“—— no buerne might ffor the birre it abide.”

(T. B. 170. Cf. T. B. 571, 1902.)

Bur, wave, C. 148. Prov.E. bore. Icel. bara. O.Ger. bare. Du. baar, wave, billow. In Laȝamon, vol. iii. p. 121, Þe beares occurs in the latter version for þa vðen of the older copy.

Burde, behoved, A. 316; C. 117, 507. O.N. byrjar. Dan. bör.

Burde, a woman, lady. B. 80, 653. See Bryd. See T. B. 3984.


city, town, A. 980; A. 982; B. 366.

Burne, man, A. 397, 712; A. 1202; “burneȝ & burdeȝ,” men and women, B. 80. A.S. beorn, warrior, hero.


burnished, B. 1085.

Burre, blow, A. 176. See bur.

Burþen, burden, B. 1439.

Butter, B. 636.

Burȝ, city, town, B. 1666. See burghe.


= buske, to go, A. 1416; B. 143, 472.

“& he (she) wist it as wel or bet as ȝif it were hire owne,

Til hit big was & bold to buschen, on felde.”

(William and the Werwolf, p. 7.)

Busily, laboriously, B. 1446.

Busk, prepare, made ready, dress, to direct one’s steps towards a place, to go, hasten. A. 142, 333, 351, 633, 1395; B. 437. Icel. at buast (for at buasc) = at bua sig, to bend one’s steps, to prepare, etc. See T. B. 1186.

Busmar, scorn, mockery, B. 653. A.S. bismer, reproach, blasphemy.

Bustwys, impetuous, fiery, A. 911. See bostwys.

Busyeȝ = busies, troubles, A. 268.

Buyrne = burne, man, C. 340. See Burne.

Bycalle, call, A. 913.

Bycalt, aroused, called, A. 1163.

Bycom, became, A. 537.


Byde, abide, A. 399; suffer, A. 664; A. 32; remain, B. 449, 622

Bydene, quickly, A. 196.

Bye, buy, A. 732.

Byfallen, befallen, B. 1629.

Byfore, before, A. 530.


great, B. 229.


building, A. 932; dwelling, B. 378. A.S. byggan, to build, Icel. byggia. See T. B. 1379.

Bygly, great, strong; “bygly bylde,” great building, A. 963. See T. B. 5216.


begun, p.p. of byginne, A. 33; A. 749; began, B. 549.

Bygyn, begin, A. 547.

Bygynner, beginner, A. 436.

Byhelde, beheld, B. 452.

Byhod, behoved, A. 928. Cf. bud, behoved; bus, behoves.

Byholde, behold, A. 810; B. 64.


behind, B. 653, 980.


built, See Bulde.

Bylde, building, A. 727, 963.

Bylyue, immediately, at once, quickly, B. 353, 610.

Bynde, bine, woodbine, C. 444. Sw. binda. Ger. winde. Eng. bind-weed.

Bynne, within, B. 452, 467.

Byrled, poured out, B. 1715. See Birle.


beseech, A. 390.

Byseme, beseem, A. 310.


Bysulpe, defile, B. 575. See Sulpe.

Byswyke, defraud, A. 568. A.S. swícan, deceive.

Bysyde, beside, B. 673


= betaught, entrusted, confided; pret. of biteche, A. 1207; B. 528.

Byte, fierce, A. 355.

Byþenk, repent, B. 582.

Bytterly, adv. B. 468.

Bytwene, between, A. 140, 658.

Bytwyste, betwixt, A. 464.

Bytyde, betide, happen, A. 397; B. 522.

Byye, buy, A. 478.

Byȝe, crown, A. 466; ring, collar, B. 1638. A.S. beáh, beág, ring, collar, diadem.

Byȝonde, beyond, A. 141, 146, 158, 981.


Cable, C. 102.

Cace, case, chance, C. 265.


= catch, drive away, take away. (1) “cache to,” run to, A. 629; (2) take, A. 898, 1252. Cachche, to knock together, A. 1541. Cached, caught, B. 1800. Prov. Fr. cacher. Fr. chasser. It. cacciare.

Cachen (3d pers. pl. of cache), B. 16.

Cagged, drawn along (?), B. 1254.

Caggen (3d pers. pl. pres. of cagge), draw (?), A. 512.

“Cables were caget togedur.”

(T. B. 3703.)


“He plyes ovir the pavement with pallene webis.

Mas on hiȝt ovir his hede for hete of the sone,

Sylours of sendale to sele ovire the gatis,

And sammes thaim on aither side with silken rapis,

And then he caggis up one

Cordis, as curteyns it ware.”

(K. Alex. p. 52.)

Cal, sb. call, invitation, B. 61.

Calder, colder, A. 320.

Calleȝ, addresses, C. 411.

Callyng, sb. proclamation, B. 1362. N.Prov.E. calling, notice. “Callynge, or clepyng to mete: Invitacio.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Calsydoyne, chalcedony, A. 1003.

Cambe, came, A. 775.

Canacle, B. 1461. M.Lat. canicellus, a little box, chest.

Candel, C. 472.

Candelstik, B. 1478.

Capeles, horses, B. 1254. Capul or caple, horse. Caballus. (Prompt. Parv.)

Capstan, B. 418.

Captyuidé, captivity, B. 1612.

Caraldes, C. 159.

Carayne, carrion, B. 459.

Care, sorrow, A. 50, 371; B. 777. A.S. cáru. Goth. kara.

Careful, sorrowful, B. 770.

Carf, carved, formed, C. 131.

Carfully, sorrowfully, B. 1252.

Carle, a low fellow, a churl, B. 876. A.S. ceorl, a man, countryman. Du. kaerle. Ger. kerl.

Carneles, battlements, embrasures, B. 1382.

Carpe, sb. discourse, A. 883; 133 parable, A. 23; speech, B. 1327.

Carpe, vb. to discourse, talk, speak, A. 381; A. 74; of carpe, discourse of, B. 752. “Carpyn or talkyn, fabulor, confabulor, garrulo.” (Prompt. Parv.) Port. carpire, cry.

Carping, discourse, speech, B. 1550.

Cas, case, A. 673.


condition, A. 1163.

Cast, look, B. 768.

Casydoyne, B. 1471. See Calsydoyne.

Catel, wealth, B. 1296.

Cawse, reason, B. 65.

Cause, A. 702.

Cayre, to turn one’s steps to a place, to go, A. 1031; B. 85, 901, 1259. “Kaire to þi londe,” T. B. 836. A.S. cérran. Ger. kehren. Du. keeren, to turn.

Cayser, emperor, B. 1322.

Caytif, wretched, B. 1426.


caught, A. 50; caȝte of, took off, A. 237; caȝt away, A. 1275; B. 485. See Cache.

Certeȝ, truly, B. 105.

Cerue, cut, dig, B. 1547.

Ceté, city, A. 927.

Ceuer, recover, reach, A. 319.

Chace, drive, A. 443.

Chambre, A. 904; B. 1586.

Chapel, A. 1062.

Charde, turned, A. 608. A.S. cérran, to turn, avert. Cf. ajar, older form a-char, on-char.


Charged, commanded, B. 464.

Charged, loaded, B. 1154, 1295.

Chariote, B. 1295.

Charyté, A. 470.

Chast, chasten, B. 860.

Chastyse, B. 543.

Chaufen, heat, increase, B. 128.

Chaunce, chance, B. 1125.

Chaundeler, candlestick, B. 1272.

Chaunge, change, B. 1588.

Chawleȝ, jaws, C. 268. N.Prov.E. chavel. A.S. ceafl. S.Sax. cheuele. Cp. the vulgar phrase “cheek by jowl.”


chair, seat, A. 885; B. 1218.

Chef, chief, B. 684, 1238.

Cheftayn, chieftain, B. 1295.

Chekke, B. 1238.

Chere, cheer, A. 407; countenance, A. 887. Prov. Sp. cara, O.Fr. chiere, countenance, favour, look.


cherish, B. 128, 543, 1154, 1644.

Ches, chose (pret. of chese), A. 759.

Cheualrye, chivalry, B. 1238.

Cheue, achieve, accomplish, B. 1125. Fr. achever, to bring to a head, accomplish. Fr. chevir, to compass.


chieftain, A. 605; B. 464. O.Fr. chevetaine


children, A. 718; B. 1300.

Chorles, churl, B. 1258. See Carle.

Chos, went. See “chosen,” T. B. 490.

Chyche, niggard, A. 605. Fr. 134 chice, avarice. Chynche and kynche are other forms of the same word.

Chyde, A. 403.

Chyldryn, (gen. pl.) of children, B. 684.

Chylled = chilled, shivered, became cold, C. 368.

Chysly = choysly, aptly, well, B. 543.

Ciences, sciences, knowledge, B. 1289.

Clam (pret.), climbed, B. 405.

Clambe (2 sing. pret.), climbedst, A. 773.

Clanner, cleaner, B. 1100.


cleanly, purely, A. 2; A. 264, 1089, 1327; neatly, B. 310. T. B. 53.

Clannes, clannesse, cleanness, purity, A. 1, 12, 1809.

Claryoun, clarion, B. 1210.


shatter, B. 912.

“So hard was she beseged soth for to telle,

And so harde sautes to the cite were ȝeuen,

That the komli kerneles were to-clatered with engines.”

(William and the Werwolf, p. 103.)

Clatering, clattering, B. 1515. Du. klateren, to rattle.

Clatȝ, clash, clatter, B. 839. Ger. klatschen, to clap; klatsch, slap, clash.

Clawres, claws, B. 1696. Clawres is perhaps an error for clawes. It may, however, be another form of O.E. clever, claver, a claw. Du. klaveren, kleveren. 134b N.Prov.E. claiver, to claw oneself up, to scramble.

Clay, A. 312. Clay-daubed, B. 492.

Clayme, call for, cry for, B. 1096.

Cleche, receive, take, A. 12. “Cleches to,” takes, lays hold of, B. 634. Sc. cleik, clek, cluke, claw, hook; cleke, cleik, catch, snatch. O.Sw. klaencka, to snatch, seize.

Clef, cleft, split (pret. of cleve), B. 367.

Clem, claim, A. 826.

Cleme, daub, plaster with clay, B. 312. N.Prov.E. cleam. Clam, to daub, glue. S.Prov.E. cloam, earthenware; clomer, a potter. A.S. clem, clám, clay; clæmian, to clam, smear.

“I stoppe thys ouyn wythowtyn dowte,

With clay I clome yt uppe ryght fast,

That non heat cum [ther] owte.”

(The Play of the Sacrament, p. 132.)

Clene, perfect, whole, B. 1731.

Clenge, cling, stick, B. 1034. Dan. klynge, to cluster, crowd. S.Prov.E. clunge, to crowd, squeeze; clungy, sticky.

Clente, clenched, fastened, A. 259. Cf. queynte = quenched, dreynte = drenched.

Clepe, to call, B. 1345. A.S. clypian.


clear, A. 2, 207; bright, A. 620, 735; plain, B. 26.

Clergye, learning, B. 1570.

Clerkeȝ, clerks, scholars, B. 193.

Clernes, clearness, beauty, B. 1353.


Cleþe, clothe, B. 1741.


= clutched, fastened, (p.p. of cleche), A. 858; fixed, B. 1655.

Clobbeȝ, clubs, B. 839.

Clos, enclosure, house, B. 839.

Clos, closed, A. 183; B. 12.

Closed, enclosed, B. 310.

Clot, mount, hill, A. 789. In the “Owl and Nightingale,” 999, we find clude, a hill. A.S. clúd. Low Ger. kloot, a hill.

Clot, soil, earth, A. 22, 320. Du. klot, klotte, clod, clot.

Clotteȝ, clods, A. 857.

Cloþ, sail, C. 105.


pieces, B. 367, 965.

Cloystor, cloister, A. 969.

Cluchche, clutch, B. 1541.

Clustered, B. 367, 951. See T. B. 1647.

Clutte, clouted, patched (?), B. 40. A.S. clút, a clout.

Clyde, plaister (?), B. 1692. A.S. clitha. Cf. “Clyte, clete, or vegge (clete or wegge, K.) cuneus.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Clyffe, cliff, A. 159; B. 405, 965.

Clyket, clicket, latch, B. 858. Prov. Fr. cliche, a latch, bolt. Clyket of a dore, clicquette. (Palsgrave.)

Clynge, wither, decay, A. 857. A.S. clingan.

Clyppe, fasten, B. 418. A.S. clyppan, to embrace.

“I wold yonder worthy weddit me hade,

So comly, so cleane to clippe uppon nightes.”

(T. B. 474.)

Clypper, shearer, A. 802.


cleave, cling to, B. 1630, 1692. Du. kleeven, klijven, to fasten. A.S. clífan.

Clyuen, cleave, A. 1196.

Clyȝt, clutched, stuck, B. 1692.

Cnawe, know, acknowledge, C. 519.

Cnawyng, sb. knowledge, A. 859.

Cnoken, knock, A. 727.

Cob-hous = cov (cow)-house (?), B. 629. Cob may be another form of Prov. Ger. colb, a heifer.

Cof, quickly, A. 60, 898; quick, B. 624. A.S. cáf, quick, expert.


coffer, chest, coffin, A. 259; ship, ark, B. 310, 339; jewel box, 1428. Fr. coffre.

Cofly, quickly, B. 1428.

Coge, boat, C. 152. Cogges with cablis cachyn to londe, T. B. 1077.

Cokreȝ, cockers, a kind of rustic high shoes or half boots fastened with laces or buttons, B. 40. “Cocur boote. Ocrea. coturnus.” (Prompt. Parv.) The term is still used in the north of England = gaiters, leggings.

Cole, coal, B. 456.

Cole, cool, C. 452.

Colde, great, severe, A. 50; “careȝ colde,” great sorrow, A. 808.

Coler, collar, B. 1569, 1744.

Colored, B. 456.

Colour, A. 753.

Coltour = coulter, (of a plough), B. 1547. Fr. coultre. Lat. culter.


Colwarde, deceitful, B. 181. See note on this word. Cf. kolsipe (col-ship), deceit.

Comaunde, B. 1428.

Combre, to trouble, destroy, B. 901, 1024. Du. kommer, kombre, loss, adversity, care, grief.

Combraunce, trouble, B. 4. See T. B. 726.

Come, sb. coming, arrival, A. 1116; B. 467

“Of his come fayne.”

(T. B. 975.)

Comende, A. 1.


sb. A. 55, 357.


comely, A. 259; B. 546.

Commune, common, A. 739.

Comparisune, vb. compare, B. 161.

Compas, A. 1072, B. 319, 1455.

Compast, B. 697.

Compaynye, company, B. 119.

Comyne, B.    .B See T. B. 12863.

Con = can, did (used as an auxiliary of the past tense), A. 453; A. 1561; coneȝ, didst, B. 482.

Conacle = canacle, cup, B. 1515.

Conciens, conscience, A. 1089.

Concubine, B. 1353.

Condelstik, candlestick, B. 1275.

Confourme, conform, B. 1067.


wisdom, science, B. 1611, 1625.

Conquere, B. 1431, 1632.

Conquerour, B. 1322.

Conquest, conquered, B. 1305.

Consayue, conceive, B. 649.

Conterfete, counterfeit, feign, B. 13.

Contraré, contrary, A. 4, 266; in contrary, opposite, B. 1532.


Controeued, contrived, B. 266.

Contryssyoun, contrition, A. 669.

Conueye, guide, B. 678, 768.

Coosteȝ, properties, B. 1033.

Coperounes, tops, B. 1461. “Coporne or coporoun of a thyng (coperone, K. H. coperun, P.), capitellum.” (Prompt. Parv.) “The Catholicon explains capitellum as signifying merely the capital of a column, but in the Medulla it is rendered ‘summa pars capitis.’” (A. Way, in Prompt. Parv.)

Coppe, top; “hyl coppe,” A. 791. A.S. copp, head, top, apex.

“Now bowis forth this baratour and bidis na langir,

Up at a martene mountane, he myns with his ost,

And viii daies bedene the driȝe was and mare,

Or he miȝt covir to the copp, fra the cave undire.”

(K. Alex. p. 163.)

Corage, heart, B. 1806.

Corbyal, raven, B. 456.

Cordes, C. 153.

Coroun, sb. A. 237; vb. A. 415, 767.

Cors, course, B. 264.

Corse, corpse, A. 320.

Corse, to curse, B. 1032, 1583.

Corsye, corrosive, B. 1034.


courteous, A. 433; A. 512; pure, B. 1089.

Cortaysye, courtesy, A. 468, 480; good conduct, B. 13.

Cortaysly, courteously, A. 381; kindly, B. 564, 1435.

Corte, court, A. 701.


Cortel, kirtle, A. 203. A.S.cyrtel. Dan. kjortel, a garment either for a man or woman.

Corteȝ, courteous, A. 754.

Corupte, B. 281.

Coruen (p.p. of kerue), cut, reaped. A. 40; B. 1407.

Cost, contrivance, B. 1478. A.S. costian. O.Sw. kosta. Du. koste, to try, attempt. This word is sometimes written cast. See “William and the Werwolf,” p. 167.

Cost, coost, property, B. 1024, 1033.

Cost, coast, border, side, B. 85.

Costoum, custom, B. 851.

Coumforde, comfort, A. 369.


counsel, A. 319; B. 683, 1201.

Counte, B. 1685, 1731.

Countenaunce, appearance, B. 792.

Counterfete, defraud, A. 556.

Countes, countess, A. 489.

Courtaysye, courtesy, A. 457.

Cout, cut, B. 1104.

Couthe, knew, known, B. 813, 1054.

Coueyte, covet, desire, B. 1054.


covenant, A. 562, 563.

Couetyse, covetousness, B. 181.

Cowpe, cup, B. 1458.

Cowþe, could; cowþeȝ, couldst, A. 484.

Cowwardely, cowardly, B. 1631.

Coyntyse, skill, craft, B. 1287. Coint, skilful, occurs in T. B. 125. “hir coint artys.” Cf. Coyntly, T. B. 164.

Crafte, power, wisdom; pl. crafteȝ, 137b A. 356; contrivance, A. 890; power, C. 131.

Crageȝ, crags, B. 449.

Crak, sound, B. 1210.

Craue, ask, pray for, A. 663; beg, B. 801.

Crede, creed, A. 485.

Cresse, cress, A. 343.

Creste, A. 856.

Croked, bad, B. 181.

Crokeȝ, reapinghooks, sickles, A. 40.

Croneȝ, cranes, B. 58.

Crossayl, cross-sail, C. 102.

Croukeȝ, croaks, B. 459.

Cruppeleȝ, cripples, B. 103.

Cry, proclamation, B. 1574.


chrysolite, A. 1009.

Crysopase, chrysoprasus, A. 1013.

Crystal, A. 159.

Cumly, A. 929. See Comly.

Cupborde, B. 1440.


B. 315, 319, 405.

Cumfort, C. 485.

Cupple, pair, B. 333.

Cure, care, A. 1091.

Curious, B. 1353.


city, A. 927, 939.


Dale, A. 384 (phrase: “doun and daleȝ,” hill and dale), B. 121.

Dalt, dealt, fulfilled, B. 1756.

Dam, stream, A. 324; the deep, B. 416. Icel. dammr. Dan. dam, a fish pond.

Dampned, damned, condemned, A. 641.

Dampped, quelled, B. 989. Ger. 138 dampfen, to suffocate, choke. Du. dempen. Sw. dåmpa, to extinguish, repress, damp.

Damysel, damsel, A. 489.

Dare, to tremble, be afraid, A. 839. Sw. darra, to tremble, shake.

Dard = dured, endured, A. 609.

Daschande, dashing, C. 312.

Dasande, stupefying, B. 1538.

Dase, lie hid, cower, C. 383. Cf. dare, to lie hid, cower. For the interchange of r and s compare O.E. gaure, to gaze.

Dased, stupid, frightened, A. 1085. Sc. dozen, dosen, to stupefy, benumb. Du. daesen, to lose one’s wits; daes, dwaes, foolish, mad. (Kil.) Prov. Ger. dasen, to be still.

“For he was dased of the dint and half dede him semyd.”

(K. Alex. p. 136.)

Date, A. 492; limit, A. 493; time, A. 504, 516; age, A. 1040.

Daube, daub, plaister, B. 313, 492. Prov.E. daub, clay. “Dawber or cleyman; dawbyn, lino, muro.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Daunce, dance, A. 345.

Daunger, power, A. 11; insolence, B. 71.

Dawande, dawning, C. 445. A.S. dagian, to become day. Icel. dagan, dawn.

Daweȝ, days; “don out of daweȝ,” deprived of life, dead, A. 282.

Dayly, A. 313.

Daynty, B. 38, 1046.

Day-rawe, daybreak, B. 893; rawe 138b or rewe signifies a streak. Cf. day-rim, in “Owl and Nightingale,” l. 328.

“Qwen the day-rawe rase, he rysis belyfe.”

(K. Alex. p. 14.)

Daȝed, dawned, became day, B. 1755. See Dawande.

Debate, strife, contest, A. 390.

Debonere, gracious, courteous, kind, A. 162; B. 830.

Debonerté, goodness, A. 798; C. 418.

Dece = dese, seat of honour, B. 38, 1399. See Dese.

Declar, explain, B. 1618.

Declyne, A. 333.

Decre, decree, A. 1745; B. 386.

Dedayn, disdain, displeasure, A. 74; B. 50.

Defence, prohibition, B. 243, 245.

Defoule, defilement, C. 290.

Defowle, to defile, B. 1129, 1147.

Degre, degree, condition, B. 92.

Degres, steps, A. 1022.

Dekenes, deacons, B. 1266.

Dele, deal, distribute, give, A. 606; exchange, B. 1118.

Dele, utter, B. 344.

Dele (dole), sorrow, A. 51.

Deled, dealt, C. 193.

Delful, doleful, sorrowful, B. 400.

Delfully, dolefully, sorrowfully, A. 706.

Delyt, delight, A. 642, 1116.

Delyuer, delivered, B. 1084.

Delyuer, deliver, A. 652; B. 500.

Deme, deem, judge, A. 312, 313; A. 1118; utter, decree, A. 1745; C. 119; call, name, B. 1020, 1611. A.S. déman.


magic, glamour, B. 1561, 1578. S.Sax. dweomer-lake, magic. A.S. dweomere, a juggler.

“And all this demerlayke he did bot be the devylle craftes.”

(K. Alex. p. 15.)

Demme, vb. become faded, lost, A. 223. A.S. dem, damage, hurt, loss.

Demmed = dammed, collected (?), B. 384. A.S. demman, to dam, stop water. Carr gives demin, a term applied to clouds when collected in masses. Sw. dämma. O.Fris. demma, to stop, obstruct.

Dene, vale, dale, A. 295. A.S. dene, denu.

Denely, loud, A. 51.

Denned, resounded. If it does not signify dinned, it must mean settled, took up its abode. A. 51.

Denounce, renounce, forsake, B. 106.

Departe, separate, part, A. 378; B. 396, 1677.

Depaynt, painted, adorned, A. 1102.


profound, A. 406; B. 1609.

Depres, depress, A. 778.

Depryue, A. 449; take away, B. 185.

Dere, vb. to harm, injure, A. 1157; B. 862. See T. B. 1260. A.S. derian, to hurt, damage, injure.

Dere, precious, A. 400; valuable, B. 1792. A.S. deóre, dear, precious.

Dere, dear ones, A. 777.


= dearly, beautifully, excellently, A. 995; very, B. 270.

Dereȝ, sb. harms, injuries, A. 102. See T. B. 920. A.S. dar, daru, hurt, harm.

“Thai dreȝe him up to the drye (land), and he na dere sufird.”

(K. Alex. p. 189.)

Derf, great, bold, B. 862. O.N. diafr. Sw. djerf, strong, bold. “A derfe dragon,” T. B. 166. “Dang him derffly don in a ded hate.” Ib. 1339.

Derfly, quickly, A. 1641; B. 110.

Derk, dark, A. 1020; C. 263; night, B. 1755. A.S. deorc.

Derne, adj. secret, hidden, A. 588, 1611; adv. secretly, B. 697. See T. B. 1962. A.S. dearn, dark, secret, hidden.

Derrest, dearest, B. 115, 1306.

Derþe = dearth, preciousness, value, worth, A. 99. See Dere.

Deruely = derfely, quickly, B. 632.

Derworth, precious, beautiful, A. 109. See Dere.


dais, seat of honour, A. 766; B. 115, 1394.

Desert, C. 84.

Desserte, desert, A. 595.

Deseuered, severed, C. 315.

Dessypele, disciple, A. 715.

Destyné, A. 758; C. 49.

Desyre, B. 545.

Determynable, A. 594.

Deuine, sb. divine, A. 1302; vb. B. 1561.

Deuinores, diviner, B. 1578.

Deuote, devout, A. 406.


Deuoutly, B. 814.

Deuoyde, do away with, destroy, A. 15; B. 908.


devise, imagine, A. 1046, 1100; describe, A. 99, 984; order, B. 110, 238.

Deuyse, sb. device, A. 139.

Deuysement, description, A. 1019.

Devoydynge, putting away, sb. B. 544.

Dewoutly, devoutly, C. 333.

Dewoyde = devoyde, C. 284.

Dewyne = dwine, pine, A. 11.

Deystyné, destiny, B. 400.


daughters, B. 270, 866, 899, 933, 939. See T. B. 1489.

Dialoke, discourse, B. 1157.

Dispayred, in despair, C. 169.

Display, B. 1107.

Displese, A. 1.

Dispit, spite, C. 50.

Dispoyled, stripped, C. 95.

Disserued, B. 613.

Disstrye, destroy, B. 907, 1160.

Disserne, discern, C. 513.

Dissert, desert, C. 12.

Distres, B. 880, 1160.

Diuinité, B. 1609.

Ditteȝ, stops up, closes, B. 588. N.Prov.E. ditt, to stop up. A.S. dyttan.

Diȝe, die, C. 488.

Diȝte, order, arrange, B. 1266. A.S. dihtan, to set in order, dispose, arrange, direct, etc.

Do, doe, “daunce as any do,” A. 345.

Dobler, dish, B. 1146. O.Fr. doublier.


Doc, duke, A. 211.


sorrow, A. 326, 339, 642; B. 852.

Dole, part, A. 136.


doom, judgment, purpose, A. 157, 580, 667; A. 597; command, A. 632; doom, B. 203.

Dongoun, dungeon, B. 1224.

Dool, part, B. 216.

Dool (dole), sorrow. See Doel.

Doole, gift, B. 699.

Dor, door, B. 320.

Dotage, folly, B. 1425.

Dote, act foolishly, A. 286, 1500; C. 125; be astonished, frightened, B. 852. Sc. doit. Icel. dotta, to slumber. Du. doten, dutten, delirare, desipere. (Kilian.) “Maddyn, or dotyn, desipio.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Doted, foolish, wicked, C. 196. N.Prov.E. doited, stupid.

Dotel, a fool, B. 1517.

Doun, down, A. 230.

Doun, down, hill, A. 121.

Doungoun, dungeon, A. 1187.

Doured, grieved, mourned, C. 372. Sc. dour.

Dousour, sweetness, A. 429.

Doute, doubt, A. 928.


brave, noble, A. 839, B. 270, 597, A.S. duguth, the nobility, senate, etc. Dugeth, good, virtuous. Dugan, to profit, avail, be good, etc.


a female dove, B. 469, 481. Cf. O.E. wulvene, a female wolf, and E. vixen, a female fox.

Dowe, avail, profit, B. 374; C. 141 50. See T. B. 5001. See Douth.

Dowelle, dwell, A. 376, 1770; B. 69.

Downe, dove, B. 485.

Downeȝ, downs, hills, A. 73, 85.

Dowyne, dwine, pine, A. 326.

Dowrie, B. 185.

Doȝter, daughter, B. 814.

Doȝty, doughty, valiant, B. 1182, 1791. See Douthe.

Doȝtyest, bravest, B. 1306.

Draȝ, draw, A. 699.

Draȝt = draught, character, B. 1557.

Drede, doubt, A. 1047.

Drepe, to kill, slay, A. 246; destroy, B. 599, 1306.

“This stone with his stremys stroyed all the venym,

And drepit the dragon to the dethe negh.”

(T. B. 929.)

A.S. drepan. O.N. drepa.

Dresse, order, direct, prepare, A. 495, 860; B. 92; pret. dressed, drest.

Dreue, drive, A. 323.

Dreued, drove, went, A. 980.

Dreȝe = dreghe, suffer, endure, B. 1224. Sc. dree. A.S. dreógan, to bear, suffer, endure. Cf. “dyntes full dregh.” T. B. 935.

Dreȝly, sorrowfully, B. 476. See T. B. 2379.

Drof, drove, A. 30, 1153.

Drouy, turbid, B. 1016. A.S. dréfe, muddy, foul; dréfan, to trouble, make turbid. O.E. drove, to trouble. Goth. drobjan, to trouble. Du. droeven. “Drovy 141b turbidus, turbulentus.” (Cath. Ang.)

“He (the fool-large) is like to an hors that seketh rather to drynke drovy watir and trouble, than for to drinke water of the welle that is cleer.” (The Persones Tale: Remedium contra avariciam.)

Drowned, was drowned, B. 372.

Droȝ, drew, A. 1116; A. 71; pl. droȝen, B. 1394.

Droȝthe = drouthe, drought. A.S. druguth. Du. drooghte. Sc. drouth, from A.S. dryg. Du. droogh, dry.

Druye, dry, A. 412; dry land, B. 472.

Drwry, dreary (?), A. 323.

Drwry = drury, love, B. 699, 1065. O.Fr. druerie, drurie.


dry, B. 385.


heavy, sorrowful, A. 823; B. 342.

Dryȝe, suffer, B. 372, 400, 1032. See Dreȝe.


strongly, rapidly, A. 125; wrathfully, angrily, A. 74, 344; B. 235.

Dryȝtyn, Lord, A. 349; B. 1065. A.S. drihten.


decked, A. 73, 97, 202; adorned, B. 115. See T. B. 1683.

Dubbement, adornment, A. 121.

Dublere, a dish, B. 1279. See Dobler.

Due, A. 894; C. 49.

Duk, duke, A. 38, 1182; leader, B. 1771.


Dumpe, be dashed, fall, C. 362.

Dumpe in þe depe.”

(T. B. 1996.)

“Þan sal þe rainbow descend,

In hu o galle it sal be kend;

Wit þe wind sal it melle,

And drive þam dun alle until helle;

And dump the devels þider in,

In þair bale alle for to brin.”

(Signa Ante Judicium, in Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)

Dungen, 3d pers. pl. pret. of ding, to beat, B. 1266. Sw. dänga.

“So dang he þat dog with dynt of his wappon.”

(T. B. 302.)

Dunne, dun, A. 30. See T. B. 925.

Dunt, blow. See Dynt.

Durande, lasting, during, A. 336.

Dure, last, A. 1021; B. 488.

Dusched, struck, B. 1538. Sc. dusche, to smite; dusch, a blow.

“All dusshet into the diche.”

(T. B. 4776.)

Dan. daske, to slap. Icel. dust a blow.

Dutande, shutting, closing (from dutte, to shut), B. 320. See Ditteȝ.

Dutte, fasten, close, B. 1182. Prov.E. dyt, stop up. O.N. ditta.

Dych, ditch, A. 607; B. 1792.

Dyd, caused, A. 306.

Dylle = dull, slow, sluggish, foolish, A. 680. N.Prov.E. dull, hard of hearing. O.N. dilla, lallare.

Dym, black, B. 1016.

Dymly, secretly, C. 375.

Dymme, dark, B. 472.

Dyn, noise, B. 862.

“All dynnet the dyn the dales aboute.”

(T. B. 1197.)

Dyngne, worthy, C. 119.

Dyngneté, dignity, B. 1801.


Dynt, blow, C. 125.

Dyscreuen, describe, A. 68.

Dyscouere, reveal, make known, B. 683.

Dysheriete, disinherit, B. 185.

Dysplese, to be displeased, A. 422; to displease, A. 455; B. 1136.

Dyspyt, spite, B. 821.

Dyssente, descend, A. 627.

Dysstrye, destroy, B. 520.

Dystresse, distress, A. 280, 337.

Dystryed, destroyed, A. 124.

Dyt, doeth, A. 681.

Dyȝe, die, A. 306.

Dyȝt, decked, A. 202, 987; ordered, prepared, A. 243, 632; ordained, A. 49; placed, seated, C. 920; B. 1794.

Dyȝtteȝ, causest, C. 488.


Efte, again, A. 328; afterwards, A. 332; B. 562.

Egge = edge, hill, B. 451.

Egge, edge (of a knife), A. 1104; of a hill, B. 383. A.S. ecge. O.N. egg, edge. Du. egghe, an angle, corner, angle. Ger. ecke, a corner.

Eggyng, instigation, B. 241. Prov.E. “egg on.” O.N. egg, an edge; eggia, to sharpen, and hence instigate.

Elde, age, A. 657; B. 125. A.S. eld, yld, age.

Elleȝ, else, otherwise, A. 32; 724; so that, B. 466.


emerald, A. 118, 1005.

Emperise, empress, A. 441.


A. 454; B. 540, 1332.


enamelled, B. 1411, 1457.

Enbaned, supported (?), B. 1459. Sir F. Madden renders it ornamented.

Enclose, B. 334.

Enclynande, inclining, bowing, A. 236.

Enclyned, prone, B. 518.


incline, A. 630, 1206.

Encres, increase, A. 959.

Encroche, approach, A. 1117; receive, C. 18.

Ende, die, A. 402; on ende, to death, B. 426. Cf. ender-day, and ending day = the day of one’s death.

Endeleȝ, endless, A. 738.

Endente, A. 639, 1012.

Endentur, crevices, holes, B. 313. O.Fr. endenter, to notch, jag.

Endorde, adored, A. 368.


A. 476, 1082.

Endyte, indite, A. 1126.

Ene, once; at ene, at once, A. 291; at ene, at one, A. 953. A.S. æne, once.

Enfaminied, famished, B. 1194.

Enforsed, forced, B. 938.

Engendered, begat, B. 272.

Enherite, inherit, B. 240.

Enle = enely (? onlepi), alone, singly, A. 849.

Enleuenþe, eleventh, A. 1014.


enemy, B. 1204.

Enourled, encircled, surrounded, B. 18. Fr. ourler, to hem. Orle 143b in Heraldry = border. Ital. Orlo = hem, edge. Spanish and Portug. Orla = selvedge, border.


press, C. 43, 528.

Enpresse, impress, A. 1097.

Enpoysened, poisoned, B. 242.

Enprysonment, imprisonment, B. 46.

Enquylen, obtain, C. 39. See Aquyle

Ensens, incense, A. 1122.

Entent, intent, A. 1191.

Entre, enter, A. 38, 1067.

Entré, entrance, B. 1779.

Entyse, to provoke, B. 1137, 1808.

Enurned, adorned, decked, A. 1027.

Er, ere, before, A. 324, 328; B. 648.


arbour, A. 9, 38, 1171.

Erbes, herbs, B. 1684.

Erde, land, abode, A. 248; B. 596, 601, 1006. A.S. eard, native soil, country, region; eardian, to dwell, inhabit.

“Eson afterward erdand on lyffe,

Endured his dayes drowpyaite (? drowpande) on age.”

(T. B. 121.)

Erigant, arrogance, B. 148.

Erly, early, A. 392.

Ernde, errand, message, C. 52. See Arende.

Erne, eagle, B. 1698. A.S. earn, eagle.

Ernestly, quickly, rapidly, B. 277, 1240. A.S. eornostlíce.

Errour, A. 422.


Erytage, heritage, A. 443.

Eþe, easy, A. 1202; B. 608. A.S. eáth.

Euen (wyth), vb. to be equal to, A. 1073.

Euen-songe, vespers, A. 529.

Euentyde, A. 582; B. 479.

Euer-ferne, ever-fern, C. 438. A.S. eforfearn, polypodium vulgare. See Gloss. to Saxon Leechdoms, ii. 381.

Ewere, ewer, B. 1457.

Excuse, A. 281.


expound, A. 37; B. 1058, 1729.

Expounyng, sb. expounding, B. 1565.

Expresse, A. 910; B. 1158.


Fable, A. 592.

Face, B. 1539.

Fader, father, A. 872.


B. 205, 474.

Falewed, became pale, faded, B. 1539. Ger. falb, pale, faded. A.S. fealo, pale, reddish or yellowish; fealwian, to grow yellow.

Fale, good, C. 92. A.S. fæl, clean, good, true.

Falleȝ, falls, happens, B. 494.

Falure, A. 1084.

Famacion, defamation, B. 188.

Famed, celebrated, B. 275.

Fande, found, A. 871.

Fanneȝ, fans, flaps, B. 457.

Fantumme, phantom, B. 1341.

Farande, pleasing, A. 865; handsome, A. 607; joyous, B. 1758. 144b N.Prov.E. farant, decent, pleasant, nice. Gael, farranta, stout, brave.

Farandely, pleasantly, C. 435. N.Prov.E. farantly.

Fare, vb. go, A. 129, 147; A. 100, 621, 929; fare, B. 466. A.S. faran. O.N. fara.

Fare, sb. voyage, course, C. 98. A.S. faru, fær.

“Þe caf he cast o corn sum quile,

In þe flum þat hatt þe Nile;

For-qui þat flum þat rennes þar,

Til Joseph hus it has þe fare.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27b.)

Fare, conduct, A. 832; B. 861.

Faren, gone, passed, B. 403.

Fasor, form, A. 431. See T. B. 3956.

Fasoun, fashion, A. 983, 1101.

Fat, B. 627.

Fateȝ, fades, A. 1038.

Fathme, (a) embrace, A. 399; (b) grope, B. 273.

(a) “Als I sat upon that lawe,

I bigan Denemark for to awe,

The borwes, and the castles stronge,

And mine armes weren so longe,

That I fadmede, al at ones,

Denemark with mine longe bones.”

(Havelok the Dane, l. 1291.)

O.N. fadma. Dan. fadme. A.S. fæthmian, to embrace.

Fatte, vessel, B. 802. A.S. fæt.

Fatted, fattened, B. 56.

Faunt, child, maiden, A. 161.

Faure, four, B. 958.

Faurty, forty, B. 741, 743.


fault, B. 177, 236, 571.

Fautleȝ, faultless, B. 794.

Fauty, faulty, sinful, B. 741.


A. 428; “gret fauor,” A. 968.

Fawre, four, B. 938.

Fawte, fault, B. 1736.


hair, B. 790, 1689. A.S. feax.

Fay, in faye, in faith, indeed, A. 263; par ma fay, by my faith, A. 489.

Faylande, failing, lacking, B. 1535.

Fayle, be wanting, A. 737. Set (of the sun), B. 1758.

Fayly, fail, A. 34; B. 548.

Fayn, glad, A. 393; fayn of, A. 642; faynest, B. 1219.

Fayned, false, B. 188.

Fayth, “in fayth” indeed, A. 1732; gen. sing, B. 1735.

Faȝte, fought, A. 54.


poor, bad, B. 47, 101, 145.


fetch, A. 847, 1158; B. 621.

Fede, A. 29.

Fees, cities, B. 960. Fr. fief. Prov. Fr. feu, fieu. M.Lat. feudum. Eng. fee. The origin of this term is to be found in Goth. faihu, possessions. O.H.G. fihu, fehu, cattle. O.N. fe. A.S. feoh, cattle, money.

Fel, bitterly, B. 1040. A.S. fell, cruel, severe.

Felaȝschyp, fellowship, B. 271.

Felde, field, B. 1750.

Fele, (?) hide, B. 914.

Fele, many, A. 21, 927. A.S. féla.

Fele (feel), taste, B. 107.

Fele-kyn, many kinds of, B. 1483.

Felle, cruel, severe; felle chere, stern countenance, B. 139; 145b sharp, A. 367; A. 156, 1737; boisterous, rough, A. 421; bitter, B. 954.

Felly, fiercely, bitterly, B. 559, 571.

Felonye, crime, sin, A. 800; B. 205.

Feloun, sinner, criminal, B. 217.

Felt, hair, B. 1689. A.S. felt. Du. velt, felt, cloth. Cf. W. gwallt, Gael. falt, hair of the head.

Femmale, female, B. 696.

Fende, fiend, devil, B. 205, 1341.

Fende, fend, B. 1191. Fr. defendre.

Fenden, of fiends, B. 224.

Feng, took (pret. of fonge), B. 377.

Fenny, dirty, vile, B. 1113. Cf. S.Prov.E. venny, mouldy. A.S. fenn, mud, dirt. Goth. fani.

Fenyx, phenix, A. 430.

Fer, far, A. 334.

Ferd, Ferde, frightened, B. 897, 975.

Ferde, fear, A. 386; B. 215. A.S. forhtian, to fear; forht, fear.

Ferde, went, pret. of fare, B. 1106.

Fere, a companion; in fere, in company, together, A. 89, 884; B. 985, 1062. A.S. fera, gefera, a companion.

Fereȝ, carries, A. 98. A.S. férian.

Fereȝ, companions, A. 1150. See fere.

Ferke up, get up, A. 897; ferke over, go, walk over, B. 133.

“The freike upon faire

wise ferke out of lyne.”

(T. B. 145.)


“He salle ferkke before

And I salle come aftyre.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 347.)

“Now ferkes to the fyrthe,

thees fresche mene of armes.”

(Ibid. p. 209.)

“The kyng ferkes furthe

on a faire stede.”

(Ibid. p. 202.)

In T. B. 185, it is used transitively. The verb to ferk seems to be related to the Eng. firk, a quick movement, jerk, etc. A.S. frician, to dance.

Ferly, adj. wondrous, A. 1084; adv. wonderfully, A. 269, 960; sb. wonder, astonishment, A. 1086; marvel, B. 1529. A.S. fær, færlice, sudden.

Ferlyly, exceedingly, B. 962.

Ferre, farther, comp. of fer, B. 97, 98.

Fers, fierce, B. 101.

Ferslych, fiercely, C. 337.

Feryed, ferried, A. 946. O.N. feria (from fara, to go), to transport; set over.

Fest, fast, C. 290.

Fest, Feste, feast, A. 283; B. 642, 1758

Festen, fasten, establish, A. 156, 327, 1255; B. 273.

Fester, B. 1040.

Festiual, festive, B. 136.

Fete, in fete, indeed, B. 1106. O.Fr. faict. Fr. fait, a deed, feat.

Feþer-beddes, C. 158.

Fetly = featly, aptly, fitly, B. 585. See fete.

Fette, fetch, B. 802.

Fettle, set in order, provide, make, 146b B. 343, 585; C. 38, 435. Prov.E. fettle, set in order, etc. O.Fris. fitia, to adorn. Goth. fetjan. Norse, fitla, to labour at a thing in order to get it right. Pl.D. fisseln, to bustle about.

Fettre, fetter, B. 1255.

Feture, feature, B. 794.


neat, well made, A. 174; dexterity, B. 1103. O.Fr. faictis. Lat. factitius, well made, neat, handsome.

Fetysely, handsomely, beautifully, B. 1462.

Feȝt, fight, B. 275, 1191. A.S. feoht. Ger. fecht, fight. See T. B. 1751.

Feȝtande, fighting, struggling, B. 404.

Filed, defiled. See Fyled.

Flake, flake; flake of soufre, B. 954. O.N. flak, plank, slice.

Flake = fleck, spot, blemish, A. 947. O.N. fleckr. Ger. fleck, spot, blot, stain.

Flakerande, flickering, fluttering, B. 1410. Ger. flackern, to flare, blaze, flutter.

Flambe, flame, A. 769.

Flaumbande, flaming, A. 90; shining, B. 1468.

Flaunke, spark, B. 954. Prov.E. flanker, a flying spark. Pl. D. flunkern, to flicker, sparkle. Ger. flunke, spark.

Flauore, flavour, A. 87.

Flawen, fled, C. 214.

Flay, terrify, A. 960, 1723; B. 215. See T. B. 4593. N.Prov.E. flay, flee.


Flayn, flayed, A. 809.

Flaȝt, plot of ground, a flat, A. 57.

Fleeȝ, fleece (of golde), B. 1476.


banish, A. 334; B. 31, 596. A.S. flyman.

Flem, stream, C. 309. Cf. Prov.E. flume, flem, fleme, a mill-stream. Norse, flom, flaum, flood, overflow of water; flauma, to overflow.


fleshly, carnal, A. 265; B. 1082.

Flet, pret. of flete, to flow, A. 1058.


flow, A. 1025; to people, B. 685. See T. B. 278, 4715. A.S. fleotan. Sw. flyta, flow, float. O.N. fliota. Prov.E. fleet.

Flette, floated, pret. of flete, to float, B. 387.

“Childer,” he said, “yee list and lete,

I sagh caf on þe water flete.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27b.)

Fleȝe, flew, A. 431.


flood, A. 874, 1058; B. 369.

Flokke, flock, company, B. 386, 1767.

Flonc = flong = flung, A. 1165.

Flor, flower, A. 29, 962; pl. flores.

Flor, floor, B. 133.

Flosed, flossed, B. 1689. Cf. floss-silk. Ital. floscio flosso, drooping, flaccid.

Flot, grease, fat, B. 1011. A.S. flótan, to float; flót-smere, scum of a pot, floating fat. O.N. flót, the act of floating, the 147b grease swimming on the surface of broth. Prov.E. fleet.


company, A. 786, 946; army, B. 1212. O.Fr. flote, a crowd.


flowed, floated, A. 46; A. 421, 432; B. 248.

Floty (? flotery), waving, A. 127.

Flour-de-lys, lily, A. 753.

Floury, flowery, A. 57.

Flowen, flew, fled, A. 89; B. 945.

Flowred, flowered, A. 270.

Floȝed, flowed, B. 397.

Flurted, flowered, figured, A. 208.

Flyt, force, literally chiding, B. 421. O.S. flit, contention.

Flyte, to quarrel, strive, A. 353. Prov.E. flite, scold. A.S. flitan

Flytande, chiding, B. 950.

Flyȝe, flay (?), A. 813.

Flyȝt, flight, B. 377.

Fo, enemy, B. 1219.

Fode, person, people, B. 466; fode, a child (King Horn, 1384); fodder, producer, mother (King Alys. 645); A.S. fedan, afedan, to bring forth, give birth to, rear. O.N.fæda. Dan. föde.

Fogge, dry grass, B. 1683. W. fwg.

Fol, full, B. 1754.

Fol, fool, B. 750, 996.

Fol, foolish, C. 283.

Folde, folded, A. 434.

Folde, earth, A. 334; B. 403, 950.

Folde, to beat, buffet, A. 813.

Fole, fowl, B. 1410.

Fole, fool, B. 202.

Fole, foal, B. 1255.

Foler, B. 1410.


Foles, acts foolishly, B. 1422.


following, A. 1040, B. 429, 1212.


people, B. 100, 542, 960.

Folken, of people, B. 271.

Folmarde. Properly the beech-martin, but commonly applied to the pole-cat. O.Fr. foine, faine (Lat. fagina), beechmast.

Folyly, foolishly, B. 696. See T. B. 575.

Folȝe, follow, A. 127; B. 6, 677, 918, 1752. A.S. folgian.

Folȝed, baptized, A. 654. A.S. fullian, fulwian, to baptize.

Foman, enemy, B. 1175.

Fon, ceased, pret., of fyne, A. 1030; B. 369. The northern form is fan.

“Bot ai þe quils he ne fan

To behald þe leve maidan.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii, fol. 20a.)

Fonde, to found, establish, A. 939; B. 173.

Fonde, to go, proceed, A. 150.

Fonde, try, B. 1103. A.S. fandian.

Fonden, found, B. 356.

Fonge, take, receive, A. 439, 479; A. 540; fongeȝ to the flyȝt, takes to flight, B. 457. A.S. fon. Ger. fangen, take, seize. Goth. fahan.

Font, B. 164.

Fonte = fond, examined, A. 170, 327.


enmity, B. 918, 919.

For, from, A. 740; because, B. 323.

Forbede, forbid, A. 379; B. 1147.


Forbi, beyond, C. 483.

Forboden, forbidden, B. 826, 998.

Forbrent, burnt, A. 1139.

For-clemmed, starved, C. 395. Prov.E. clem, to starve, pinch with hunger. Du. klemmen, to pinch, compress.

For-didden, did away with, A. 124.

For-dolked, severely wounded, A. 11. A.S. dolc, dolh, dolg, a wound; dilgian, to destroy.

Forering, A. 3. See Note.

Forfare, destroy; also to perish, A. 1168; C. 483; forferde, (pret.), B. 571, 1051.

Forfete, A. 619, 639; B. 743.

Forfyne, lastly.


= for-did, lost, pret. of for-gar, ruin, destroy, lose, A. 321; B. 240. See Gar.

Forged, made, B. 343.

Forhede, forehead, A. 871.

Foriusted, overthrown, defeated, B. 1216. Fr. jouster, to tilt.

“So mony groundes he for-justede & of joy broght.”

(T. B. 296.)

Forlete, lost, A. 327.

For long, very long, A. 586.

Forlonge, furlong, A. 1030.

Forloteȝ = forleteȝ, forsake, B. 101.

“Þe laghes bath he (Adam) þan forlete

Bath naturel and positif.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 52b.)

Forloyne, forsake, depart, go astray, err, A. 368; B. 282, 750, 1155, 1165. Fr. loin, far.

For-madde, very mad (foolish), C. 509.


Formast, first, foremost, B. 494.

Forme, first, C. 38.


first-father, progenitor, A. 639; B. 257.

Fornes, furnace, B. 1011.

For-payned, severely troubled, A. 246.

Forray, forage, B. 1200. Fr. fourrager, to fodder, forrage, prey. O.Fr. fourrer. Mid. Lat. foderare, forrare, from A.S. foder. Ger. futter, food, victuals.

Forselet, a fortified place, B. 1200. “Forcelet, stronge place (forslet, H. P.) Fortalicium.” (Prompt. Parv.) O.Fr. forcier. It. forciere. Mid. Lat. forsarius, a strong box, safe, coffer.

Forser = forcer, forcet, A. 263. See preceding word.

Forsette, compass, B. 78.

Forsothe, forsooth, indeed, C. 212.

Forst, frost, B. 524. A.S. forst.

Forþe, way, passage, A. 150. See T. B. 4094, 4166. Welsh, ffordd, a way.

“The kyng fraystez [seeks] a furth over the fresche strandez,

One a strenghe by a streme in thas straytt landez.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 103.)

Forth-lep, forth-leapt, C. 154.

Forþoȝt, repented, B. 557.

Forþrast, for-thrust, B. 249.

Forþy, therefore, wherefore, A. 234; B. 545, 1020.

Forþynke, repent, B. 285.

Fortune, A. 306.

Forwarde = forward, covenant, 149b promise, B. 327, 1742. A.S. fore-weard. “Forwarde, or cuuinawnt, convencio, pactum.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Forwroȝt, over-worked, weary, C. 163.

Forȝes, furrows, B. 1547. A.S. furh. Ger. furche, a furrow.

Forȝete, forgat, B. 203.

Fote, foot, A. 970.

Foted, footed, B. 538.

Founce, bottom, A. 113. See Founs.

Foundande, going, C. 126.

Founde, to go, B. 903.

“Quen we suppose in our sele

to sit alther heist,

Than fondis furth dame fortoun

to the flode ȝates,

Draȝes up the damme borde

and drenchis us evir.”

(K. Alex. p. 64.)

“Fflorent and Floridas with fyve

score knyghttez,

ffollowede in the foreste, and on the

way foundys,

Fflyngande a faste trott,

and on the folke dryffes.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 231.)

Foundemente, foundation, A. 993.

Founden, found, B. 547.

Foundered, destroyed, perished, B. 1014.


bottom, B. 1026.

“Onone as thai on Alexander

and on his ost waites,

Thai flee as fast into flode,

and to the founce plungid.”

(K. Alex. p. 141.)

Fourferde, perished, pret. of forfare, B. 560.

Fowle, foully, B. 1790.


Fowled, became defiled, foul. B. 269.

Fowre, four, A. 886.

Foysoun, abundant, A. 1058. Fr. foison. O.Fr. fuson, from Lat. fusio, pouring out.

Fraunchyse, liberality, A. 609; B. 750.

Fray, terrify, B. 1553. See Afray.

Frayneȝ, demands, asks, desires, A. 129. A.S. fregnan, to ask. Goth. fraihnan.

Frayste (a), sought, A. 169; (b) literally, to try, prove, B. 1736. O.N. fresta.


“Bot wete thou wele this iwis, within a wale time,

Fra that I fraist have that faire (faice?) of my faire lady,

I sall the seke with a sowme of seggis enarmed.”

(K. Alex. p. 69.)


man, B. 6, 79, 540. This word is used by Skelton. A.S. freca, a daring warrior, from frec, freca, bold, daring, eager. The adjective freke (frek, frike), was not unknown to O.E. writers of the 14th century.

“Israel wit þis uplepp,

Þat moght noght forwit strid a step,

Witouten asking help of sun;

Þat quak wit ilk lim was won,

Þat first for eild moght noght spek,

To bidd hast now es nan sa frek.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 29b.)

Freles, blameless, A. 431. O.N. fryja, to blame. Frie, to blame, occurs in the romance of Havelok the Dane, 1998.


Freloker, more freely, B. 1106.

Frely, lordly, A. 162; beautiful, A. 173; freely, B. 20.

Frelych, lordly, A. 162; bountiful, B. 214.

French, an error for frech (fresh) or frelich, A. 1086.

Frete, gnaw, eat, devour, B. 1040. A.S. fretan.

Freten, devoured, B. 404.

Frette, furnish, A. 339; ornament, B. 1476. A.S. frætu, ornament; frætewian, frætwian, trim, deck, adorn.

Fro, from, A. 427; A. 396. This is another form of the Northumbrian fra. O.N. frá; “to ne fro,” B. 347.


dress, garment, frock, B. 136, 1742.

Froþande, frothing, frothy, filthy, B. 1721.

Frunt, kicked, C. 187. See T. B. 5968.

Frym, beautiful, fresh, vigorous, A. 1079. Prov.E. frim; frum, tender, fresh. A.S. freme, advantageous, good. Drayton uses the phrase “frim pastures,” i.e. luxuriant pastures.

Fryst, delay, put off, B. 743. A.S. fyrstan, to give respite; fyrst, a space of time, interval. Icel. frest, delay; “to frist, to trust for a time” (Ray); to delay (Jam.).


fruit, A. 29; B. 1044.

Fryth, wood, A. 89; B. 534, 1680. Gael, frith, a heath, deer park, forest.


Ful, foul, B. 231.

Fulfille, accomplish, B. 264, 1732.

Fulȝed, baptized, B. 164. See Folȝed.

Fundament, foundation, A. 1010.

Funde, found, B. 1735.

Fust, fist, B. 1535.

Fyf, five, A. 849.

Fygure, A. 170, 747.

Fykel, treacherous, deceitful, C. 283.

Fyldor, gold thread, A. 106. Fr. fil d’or.

Fyled, defiled, dirty, B. 136.

Fyled, formed, B. 1460.

Fylsened, strengthened, aided, supported, B. 1167, 1644. A.S. fylst, help, assistance; fylstan, to help, aid.

Fylter, huddle together, A. 224; join, A. 696; meet together in battle, B. 1191; become ragged, entangled. Prov.E. felter, entangle, clot. Fairfax uses the phrase “feltred locks.” Cf. the phrase a “filtered fole,” a shaggy foal. Baker says that the term felt is applied to a matted growth of grass.

“His fax and his foretoppe was filterede togeder.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 91.)

Fylyoles (= fyells, phiolls), round towers, B. 1462. Cf. Fala, a tour of tre. Med. Gram.

Fyne, vb. end, die, A. 328; cease, A. 353; A. 450; delay, B. 929.

Fyne, sb. cessation, A. 635.

Fynne, fin, B. 531.

Fyole, B. 1476.

Fyrmament, B. 221.


Fyrre, adv. farther, comp. of fer, A. 103, 127; A. 766; C. 116; adj. distant, B. 148. A.S. fyrre.

Fyrte, fearful, trembling, A. 54. A.S. fyrhto; fyrhtu, fear, fright, trembling; forht, fearful, timid.

Fyþel, fiddle, B. 1082.

Fyþere, feather, B. 530, 1026.


Galle, gall, stain, filth, A. 1060; B. 1022. Cf. to gall, fret. Fr. galler. W. gwall. O.N. galli, fault, imperfection. Dan. gal, wrong, ill.

Gain, against, A. 138.

Gardyn, A. 260.

Gare, cause, make, drive, A. 331; B. 690. N.Prov.E. gar. O.N. göra, gera.

Garlande, A. 1186.

Garnyst, garnished, ornamented, B. 1277.

Gart, forced, made, A. 1151. See gare; garten, 3d pers. pl. A. 86.

Gate, way, A. 395, 526; B. 676, 931. See T. B. 6292. O.N. gata.


A. 463; C. 285. See galle.


A. 260; B. 830, 1315.

Gayn, vb. avail, A. 343; C. 164; prevail, B. 1608. Sc. gane; gain, to be fit or suitable.


useful, available, good, B. 259, 749.


gainly, gracious, A. 728; B. 83. Cf. ungainly = awkward. O.N. gegn, 152 convenient, suitable; gegna, to meet.

Gaȝafylace, royal treasury, B. 1283.

Geder, gather, C. 105.

Gef, gave, A. 174.

Gele, spy, see, A. 931.

Gemme, A. 253.

Gendered, engendered, B. 300.

Gendreȝ, genders, kinds, B. 434.

Generacyoun, A. 827.


gentle, noble, gracious, A. 118, 253, 265; B. 1495.

Gentryse, nobleness, B. 1159, 1216.

Gentyl, noble, A. 278; gentyleste, A. 1015; B. 1180.

Gentylmen, B. 864.

Gere, gear, A. 16; B. 148.

Gere, clothing, attire, B. 1811.

Gered, covered, clothed, ornamented, B. 1344, 1568. O.N. gerfi. A.S. gearwa, habiliments. O.H.G. garawi, ornament, dress. A.S. gearwan; gearwian, make ready, prepare, supply.

Gesse, tell, A. 499. Norse, gissa.

Geste, tale, saying, A. 277.


guest, B. 98, 640.

Gettes, devices, B. 1354. O.N. geta, to conceive. A.S. “and-gitan,” get, know, understand.

Geuen, given, A. 1190.

Gilde, gilt, B. 1344.

Giles, gills, C. 269.

Gilofre, gilly flower, A. 43. Fr. giroflée. Lat. caryophyllus, a clove.

Glace = glance, A. 171. Fr. glacer, 152b glacier, slide, slip. Cf. O.E. glace, to polish, glance as an arrow turned aside.

Glade, vb. to gladden, A. 861.

Glam, word, message, A. 499; A. 63; talk, speech, C. 830; noise, B. 849. Obsolete Swedish, glamm, talk, chatter; glamma, to talk, chatter. Gael. glam, outcry. O.N. glam, clash; glamra, to rattle. Sc. glamer, noise, clatter.

“Alle thire he closis in that cliffe, and cairis on forthire,

To the occyann at the erthes ende, and, ther in an ilee, he heres

A grete glaver and a glaam of grekin tongis.”

(K. Alex. p. 188.)


A. 990, 1025.

Glauere, to deceive, A. 688. Cf. N.Prov.E. glaver, glaiver, to talk foolishly; glauver, flattery. W. glafr. Irish glafaire, a babbler.

“Sir,” sais syr Gawayne,

“So me gode helpe,

Siche glaverande gomes

greves me bot lyttille.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 212.)

See extract under word glam.

Glaymande, slimy, C. 269. Cf. “gleyme or rewme, reuma;” “gleymyn or yngleymyn, visco, invisco.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Glayre, glare, amber, A. 1026. A.S. glære, amber. O.N. gler. Dan. glar, glass.

Glayue, a sword, A. 654. Fr. glaive. Lat. gladius.

Gle, joy, glee, A. 95, 1123.

Glede, kite, B. 1696. A.S. glída.


gleam, light, A. 79; brightness, A. 218; day-glem, daylight, A. 1094; heven-glem, heaven light, B. 946.

Glemande, gleaming, shining, A. 70, 990.

Glene, glean, gather, A. 955.


shone, A. 70, 114, 1026; B. 218. Sc. glent, glint, to gleam. Dan. glindse, to glisten; glindre, to glitter.

“The schaftes of the schire sone schirkind the cloudis,

And gods glorious gleme glent tham emannge.”

(K. Alex. p. 164.)


slipped, fell, A. 671. Sc. glint, glent, not only signifies to gleam, shine, but also to glide, slide. W. ysglentio, to slide.

“Glissonand as the glemes þat glenttes of þe snaw.”

(T. B. 3067.)

Glenteȝ, sb. looks, A. 1144.


dirt, mud, slime, and hence filth, sin, A. 1060; A. 306, 573; B. 269. Pl. D. glett, slippery. Sc. glít, pus. O.N. glæta, wet.

Glewed, called, prayed, C. 164. Fr. glay, cry.

Glodeȝ, glades, A. 79.

Gloped, was terrified, frightened, amazed, B. 849. O.N. glapa, stare, gaze, gape. O.Fris. glupa, to look, peep. Dan. glippe, to wink. N.Prov.E. glop, gloppen, to be amazed, to frighten.

“Bees not aglopened madame ne greved at my fadire.”

(K. Alex. p. 30.)


“Thane glopned the glotone and glorede unfaire.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 90.)

“O, my hart is rysand in a glope!

For this nobylle tythand thou shalle have a droppe.”

(Town. Myst. p. 146.)

Glopnedly, fearfully, B. 896.

Glory, A. 934; B. 1522.


A. 799, 915.

Glotoun, a wicked wretch, a loose fellow, a ribald, B. 1505.

Gloumb, look, observe, C. 94. Chaucer uses glombe in the sense of looking gloomy, sullen, frowning. It seems to be connected with O.N. glampa, to glitter, shine. Cf. O.E. glent, to shine, and glent, to look. So also stare signifies not only to look steadfastly at, but to shine, glitter.

Glowed, shone, A. 114. O.N. gloá, to glow, burn, shine.

Glwande, glowing, shining, bright, C. 94.

Glydande, going, walking, B. 296.

Glyde, to go, walk, slip along, B. 325, 677, 1590. Pl. D. gliden, glien, slip, glide.

Glyfte, became frightened, B. 849. Originally to stare, look astonished.

“Þys munke stode ande lokede þarto,

And hade þerof so moche drede,

Þat he wende have go to wede:

As he stode so sore aglyfte

Hys ryȝt hande up he lyfte,

Ande blessede hym self stedfastly.”

(Handlyng Synne, l. 3590.)

Gliffe, in O.E. signifies also to 154 look, shine, glow. Sc. glevin, to glow; gliff, a glimpse; gliffin, to wink. Dan. glippe, to wink.

Glymme, brightness, A. 1088. O.Sw. glimma, to shine.

Glysnande, shining, glistening. A. 1018. A.S. glisnian. O.N. glyssa, to sparkle, glitter.

Glyȝt, shone, A. 114; looked, C. 453. Du. glicken, to shine. Icel. glugga, to peep. A-glyȝte, slipped from, in line 245, is evidently another form of glyȝt. Cf. N.Prov.E. glea, aglea, crooked, aside; gledge, to look asquint. Sc. gley, gly, to squint, all of which originally signified simply to look, shine. See T. B. 3943.

Gnede, niggardly, beggarly, B. 146. The MS. reads nede, but gnede is the correct form. Dan. gnide, to rub. A.S. gnidan. Cf. O.E. nithing, a miser. A.S. gnethen, moderate, sparing.

“Sua lang has thir tua boght þair sede,

Þat þair moné wex al gnede.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 31a.)

“Bot fra þair store bigan to sprede

The pastur þam bigan to knede.”

(Ibid. fol. 15a.)

“Bot al he tok in godds nam,

And thold luveli al þat scam;

For al to gnede him thoght þe gram

Þat he moght thol on his licam”

(Ibid. fol. 51a.)

Goande, going, B. 931.

Goblote, goblet, B. 1277.


good, wealth. See Goud.

Godhede, godhead, A. 413.


Godlych, good, B. 753.

Golf, deep, abyss, A. 608.

Gome, man, A. 231; B. 1315.

Gorde = girde, rush, go headlong, B. 911, 957. See T. B. 169.

Gore, filth, B. 306. A.S. gor, wet, filth, mud. N. gor.

Gorste, gorse, B. 99, 534. W. gores, gorest, waste, open.


spirit, A. 86; B. 325, 1598.

Gostly, spiritual, ghostly, A. 790.

Gote, stream, A. 934; A. 413; C. 310; pl. goteȝ, B. 608. Prov.E. gote, goit, gowt, ditch, sluice, mill-stream. Du. gote, kennel, conduit. A.S. geotan, to pour.

“As gotes out of guttars in golanand, (glomand ?) wedors,

So voidis doun the venom be vermyns schaftes.”

(K. Alex. p. 163.)


adj. good, A. 33, 568; sb. wealth, riches, A. 731, 734; B. 1326.


gown, dress, B. 145, 1568.

Governor, A. 1645; B. 199.

Gowdeȝ, goods, C. 286.

Grace, A. 436.


A. 95, 260, 934; C. 26.

Gracyously, B. 488.

Grame, wrath, vengeance, C. 53. A.S. grama. Ger. gram, anger, displeasure.

Graunt, sb. leave, permission, A. 317; vb. grant, A. 765; B. 240.

Grauayl, gravel, pebbles, A. 81.

Grauen, graven, B. 1324.

Grauen, buried, B. 1332.


Grayneȝ, grains, A. 31.

Grayþed, prepared, A. 343, placed, A. 1485; availed, B. 53. See T. B. 229. O.N. greitha, to make ready. N.Prov.E. graid.

Grayþely, quickly, readily, A. 341; truly, A. 499; B. 240. N.Prov.E. gradely. See T. B. 54.

“On Gydo, a gome þat graidly had soght,

And wist all þe werks by weghes he hade.”

(T. B. 229.)

Cf. Graiþe = ready.

Gre, will, desire, C. 348; hence bongre, malgre, etc. O.Fr. gret. Fr. gré, will, pleasure. Lat. gratus, pleasing.

Grece, step, B. 1590.

Gredirne, gridiron, B. 1277.

Greffe, grief, A. 86.

Greme, adj. displeasing, A. 42; wrath, C. 16, 947; vb. to make angry, displease, B. 138, 1347. A.S. gremian, to displease.

Greme, spot, blemish, A. 465. Norse grima, a spot.

Gresse, grass, A. 10, 245; B. 1028.

Grete, the whole, A. 637, ? altogether A. 851; a grete, in the gross—a head, A. 560.

Grete, weep, A. 331. A.S. grætan, Prov.E. greet.

Gretyng, sb. weeping, B. 159.

Greue, grieve, A. 471; B. 138, 302, 306.

Greue, grove, A. 321; B. 99.

Greuing, sb. sorrowing, grief, B. 159.

Gromylyoun, the herb gromwell, grey millet, (Lithospermum officinale), A. 43. “Gromaly 155b herbe. Milium solis.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Grone, groan, B. 1077.

Gropande, searching, trying, B. 591. A.S. grápian, to touch, feel, seize, grope. O.N. greipa.

Gropyng, sb. handling, B. 1102.

Grounde, ground, sharpened, A. 654.

Groundeleȝ, bottomless, C. 310.

Grouelyng, on the face, A. 1120. O.N. grufa; grufa nidr, to stoop down. Liggia á grufu, to lie face downwards, to lie groveling.

Gruche, begrudge, B. 1347.

Gruȝt, pret. of gruche, B. 810.

Grychchyng, sb. murmuring, repining, C. 53.

Grym, black, A. 1070.

Grymly, sharply, A. 654; roughly, B. 1534.

Grymme, horrible, A. 1553; sharp, B. 1696. A.S. grim; grimm, fury, rage; sharp, bitter; “a grym toole,” T. B. 938.

Grynde, A. 81.

Gryndel, angry, C. 524. Norse grina, wry the mouth; grinall, sour looking. Du. grinnen, grinden, to grin, snarl.

Grysly, horrible, B. 1534. A.S. grislíc, horrible; a-grísan, to dread, fear greatly.

Gryspyng, sb. gnashing of the teeth. A.S. grist-bítung.

Gryste, dirt (?), A. 465.

Guere, gear, B. 1505.

Guferes, evidently an error for guteres, C. 310. See T. B. 3072. See extract under word gote.


guilt, A. 942; B. 690.

Gulty, guilty, C. 210, 285.

Gut, C. 280.

Gyde-ropes, C. 105.

Gye, govern, B. 1598. Fr. guider; guier, direct, guide.

Gyle, guile, A. 671, 688; C. 285.

Gylt, guilt, B. 731.

Gylteȝ, A. 655.

Gyltleȝ, guiltless, A. 668.

Gyltyf, guilty, A. 669.

Gyn, machine; applied to the ark, A. 491; to a boat, B. 146.

Gyng, company, A. 455. A.S. genge. See T. B. 1225.

“Þan was Jacob busked yare,

Wit al þe gynge þat wit him ware.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 30a.)

Gyngure, ginger, A. 43.

Gyse, guise, A. 1099.

Gyternere, A. 91. Fr. guiterre; guiterne, a gittern. (Cot.) Lat. cithara, a harp.


Habbe, have, A. 75; habes, habbes, has, B. 555, 995.


hatch (of a ship), A. 409; B. 179.

Hafyng. See Hauyng.

Hagherlych, fitly, B. 18. See Haȝerly.

Haldande, holding, C. 251.

Halde, hold, A. 454, 490; B. 652.

Halden, held, A. 1191; B. 42.

Hale, flow, A. 125. The original meaning is to drag along. Ger. holen. O.N. hala. Fr. haler. Cf. T. B. 1782.

Hale, toss, A. 1520; B. 219.


Half, side, quarter, B. 950. O.N. halfa.

Halke, recess, B. 104, 321. A.S. hylca, hooks, turnings. “Halke or hyrne. Angulus, latibulum.” (Prompt. Parv.) See Canterbury Tales, 11433.

Halse, salute, wish one health, B. 1621. O.N. heilsa. Sw. halsa, to salute. O.N. heilsa, health. See T. B. 367.

Halt, lame, B. 102. O.N. halltr, lame; haltra, halta, to limp.

Halue, behalf, B. 896.

Halue, side, border, B. 1039.

Halyday, holy day, A. 134; B. 9.

Halȝed, hallowed, sanctified, B. 506, 1163.

Hampre, to pack up for removal, B. 1284.

Han (3d pers. pl. pres.), have, A. 776.

Hande-helme, B. 419.

Hapeneȝ, is blessed, B. 27.

Happe, joy, A. 16, 1195; happeȝ, blessings, A. 24; B. 11. O.N. happ.

Happe, cover, A. 626; B. 450. Prov.E. hap, to cover; happing, covering.

“Lord, what (lo) these weders ar cold, and I am ylle happyd.”

(Town. Myst. p. 98.)

Happyn or whappyn’ yn cloþys.” “Lappyn’, or whappyn’ yn cloþys (happyn to-gedyr, S.; wrap to-geder in clothes, P.) Involvo.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Happen, adj. happy, blessed, C. 13, 17, 19, 21.


Hard, coarse cloth made of tow, “hard hattes,” B. 1209. A.S. heordan, heordas, hards, refuse of tow.

“Sum araies thaim in ringes, and sum in row breuys,

With hard hattes on thaire hedis hied to thaire horsis.”

(K. Alex. p. 102.)

Hardy, bold, B. 143.

Hardyly, boldly, A. 3.

Hare, B. 391.

Harlot, underling, A. 39; servant, profane jester, A. 860, 1584; harloteȝ, harlot’s, A. 34; harlots, B. 860. This term was not originally confined to females, nor even to persons of bad character. W. herlawd, herlod, a youth; herlodes, a damsel. Cf. “harlotte scurrus.” “Gerro a tryfelour or a harlott.” Med. MS. Cant. “An harlott, balator, rusticus, gerror, mima, joculator, nugatur, scurrulus, manducus. An harlottry, lecacitas, inurbanitas,” etc. To do harlottry, scurrari.” Cath. Ang. in Prompt. Parv.

“Ffore harlottez and hause-mene (house-men) salle helpe bott littille.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 229.)

Harlottrye, profane speaking, B. 579.

Harme, sb. wrong, sin, A. 17; pl. harmeȝ, harms, C. 388.

Harmleȝ, guiltless, A. 676, 725.

Harpe, A. 881.

Harpen (3d pers. pl. pres.), play on the harp, A. 881.

Harporeȝ, harpers, A. 881.


Haspe, fasten, A. 419; clothe, cover, B. 381. O.N. hespa, a clasp, buckle. Cf. “haspyng in armys.T. B. 367.

Haspede, hook, C. 189. Cf. Dan. haspe, windlass, reel; haspevinde capstan of a ship.


hasty, C. 520.


hastily, quickly, B. 200, 1150.

Hat, call, B. 448. A.S. hátan, to call.


anger, A. 200; fierce, A. 227; keen, sharp, B. 367, 481. S.Saxon, hatel, hetel, keen, sharp, bitter. A.S. hétel, fierce. O.Sax. hatol. A.S. atol, dire, cruel.

Hatere, clothing, garments, B. 33. A.S. hætern, hæter, clothing, apparel.

Haþel, man, literally noble, A. 676; B. 27, 409, 1597. A.S. æthele, noble; ætheling, a ruler, man.

“Homer was holden haithill of dedis.”

(T. B. 38.)

Hatte, is called, A. 926; B. 35.

Haunte, practise, C. 15. Fr. hanter, frequent, haunt, literally, to follow a certain course.

Haueke, hawk, B. 537.

Hauen, haven, port, B. 420.

Hauyng, condition, behaviour, A. 450, 754.

Haylsed, saluted, A. 238; B. 612, 814. See Halse. See T. B. 1792.

Hayre, heir, B. 666.

Hayreȝ, shirts of horse-hair, hair-cloth, 158 sack-cloth, C. 373. A.S. héra.

Haȝerly, fitly, properly, B. 18. This word occurs in the Ormulum under haȝherrlike. O.N. hægr, dexter, facilis. Dan. haage, to please; haagelig, agreeable, acceptable.

Hede, notice, A. 1051.

Hef, heaved, raised, C. 219.

Heke = eke, also, A. 210.

Helde, bend to, come to, B. 1330. A.S. healdan; hyldan, incline, lean to. Dan. helde.

Helde, adv. willingly, A. 1193; in helde, in mind, in purpose, disposed, B. 1520.

Helded, approached, B. 39.

Heldeȝ, goes, walks, B. 678.

“Þir brether helid ai forth þair wai

Þat to þair fader ful suith com þai.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 29b.)

Hele, safety, A. 335; health, C. 1099; pleasure, B. 16. A.S. hél.

Helle-hole, B. 223.

Hellen, of hell, C. 306.

Helme, C. 149.

Hem, them, C. 180.

Hemme, border, A. 1001.

Hende, gracious, A. 612; C. 398; pleasant, B. 1083. Norse hendt, adapted; hendug. Dan. hændig, handy, dextrous. Cf. hendly, T. B. 1792.

Hendelayk, mildness, civility, B. 860. Hard-laike occurs in T. B. 2213.


hang, B. 1584, 1734.

Hens, hence, C. 204.


take, seize, receive, A. 388, 669; B. 151, 376, 883, 1150. O.N. henda. A.S. hentan.

Hepe, heap, company. B. 1775.

Her, their, A. 888.

Here, heir, B. 52.

“Bede his doughter come downe and his dere heire.” (T. B. 389.)

Here, hair, A. 210.

Here, company, B. 409, 902. T. B. 6253. A.S. here, an army, host, etc.

Hered, honoured, B. 1086. A.S. hérian, to praise, commend.


hearken, B. 193, 458.

Herneȝ, brains, A. 58. O.N. hjarni. Sw. hjerna.

Herneȝ = erneȝ, eagles, B. 537.

Hert, heart, B. 1723.

Hertte, hart, B. 391, 535.

Heruest, harvest, B. 523.

Hery, honour, praise, B. 1527. See hered.


A. 417; B. 652.

Herȝe, harry, A. 1179, 1294; drag out, B. 178. Sc. herry; harry, rob, spoil, pillage. A.S. hergian, herian, to plunder, afflict, vex. Fr. harrier, provoke, molest. O.N. heria, to make an inroad on.


command, A. 633; A. 94, 341; promise, B. 1636.

Hete, promise, vow, A. 402; A. 1346; B. 336. O.N. haeta, to threaten. T. B. 240.

Heter, rough, C. 373. See T. B. 159 5254. N.Prov. hetter, hitter, eager, earnest.

Heterly, quickly, greatly, fiercely, A. 402; A. 380, 1222; B. 381, 477. See T. B. 3499.

Heþe, heath, B. 535.

Heþen, hence, A. 231. O.N. hëthan. See T. B. 5115.

Heþyng, scorn, contempt, A. 579, 710; B. 2. O.N. háthung. See T. B. 1753, 1818.

Heue, heave, raise, A. 314, 473. O.N. hefia.

Heued, head, A. 459, 465.

Heuen, raise, exalt, A. 16; A. 24, 506; increase, “heuen þi hele.” B. 920. We also meet with the phrase to “heuen harm.”

“Qua folus lang wit uten turn,

Oft his fote sal find a spurn;

Reu his res þan sal he sare,

Or heuen his harme with foli mare.” 

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 25a.)

Heuen-ryche, the kingdom of heaven, A. 719; C. 14.

Heuy, sorrowful, A. 1180; A. 2.

Heyred, harried, dragged, pulled, B. 1786. See Herȝe. “Harryn’ or drawyn’ trahicio, pertraho” (Prompt. Parv.)

Heyred = heryed, honoured, B. 1527. See Hered.

Heȝe, high, lofty, B. 1391, 1749.

Heȝe, hasten, B. 1584. See Hyȝe.


height, A. 1031; B. 317.


hid, hidden, B. 1600, 1628.

Hidor, fear, C. 367. O.Fr. hisdour; hidour, dread.


Hiled, covered, B. 1397. A.S. hélan, hélian. Prov.E. hele, hill, hile, to cover. O.N. hylia, to hide.

Hitte, to make for, A. 289; come, C. 479; B. 380. O.N. hitta, to light on, find.

“Þai turne into Tessaile withouten tale more,

Hit up into a havyn all the hepe samyn.”

(T. B. 991.)

Hiȝe = high, loud, B. 1564.

Hiȝly, greatly, B. 920.

Ho, she, A. 232, 233; B. 659. A.S. heo. Prov.E. hoo.

Ho-besteȝ, she-heasts, B. 337.

Hod, hood, B. 34.

Hodleȝ, hoodless, B. 643.

Hofen, (p.p. of heve), exalted, raised, B. 1711.

Hokyllen, beat, B. 1267. Is this an error for hollkyen? See Holkke.

Hol, whole, B. 102, 594.

Hole-foted, B. 538.

Holde, dominion, B. 1597.

Holkke, thrust out, B. 1222. The original meaning seems to be “to make hollow, dig out, pierce.” A.S. holian, to hollow; hol, holh, a hole. Cf. O.Sc. and O.E. holket, hollow; holk, dig out. Prov.E. hulk, to take out entrails of rabbits and hares (Baker). Sw. holka, hulka, to hollow.

Holly, wholly, B. 104, 1140.

Holteȝ, woods, A. 921. A.S. holt, wood, grove; “holte woddes,” T. B. 1351.


Holȝe, hollow, B. 1695. A.S. holh.

Homly, familiar, domestic, A. 1211.

Hommes, hams, thighs, B. 1541. O.N. höm, the back of the thigh.

Honde, hand, A. 49, 706; B. 174.

Hondel, handle, B. 11.

Hondelyng, sb. handling, B. 1101.

Hondelynge, adv. with hands, A. 681.

Honde-werk, handwork, C. 496.

Honde-whyle, a moment, B. 1786. A.S. hand-hwíl; “in a hond-while,” T. B. 406.

Hone, to delay, abide, A. 921. See Met. Hom., p. 129.

Honest, B. 14, 18.

Honestly, B. 134, 705.

Honour, A. 852; B. 594.

Honyseȝ, destroys, ruins, B. 596. O.Fr. honeison, shame; honnir, to shame, blame, borrowed from Goth, haunjan. Ger. höhnen.

“And Alexander alle that quile asperly rydis

To the grete flode of Granton, and it one a glance fyndes,

Or he was soȝt to the side ȝit sondird the qweryns,

His hors it hunyschist for evir, and he with hard schapid.”

(K. Alex. p. 102.)

Hope, expect, think, suppose, A. 142; B. 663.

Hores, theirs, C. 14.

Hores (?), B. 1695.

Hortyng, sb. hurting, harm, B. 740.

Horwed, unclean, B. 335. A.S. horwa, hóru, dirt; hyrwian, to defile.


Horyed, hurried, B. 883.


angry, B. 200.

Hourlande, rolling, rushing, hurling, C. 271.

Hourle, wave, C. 319.

Household, B. 18.

Houe, abide, B. 927. W. hofian; hofio, to fluctuate, hover, suspend.

Houeȝ, hovers, B. 458, 485.

Houen, exalted, raised, B. 206, 413, 1451.

Hue, cry, voice, A. 873.


hue, complexion, A. 842; B. 1483.

Huge, great, B. 4, 1659.

Hunger, vb. C. 19.

Hurkele, hang, B. 150; rest, 406. The original meaning is to nestle, crouch, squat. N.Prov.E. hurkle, to squat, crouch, nestle. Du. hurken, to squat. O.N. hruka.

“Then come ther in a litill brid into his arme fleȝe,

And ther hurkils and hydis as sche were hande tame,

Fast scho flekirs about his fete, and fleȝtirs aboute.”

(K. Alex. p. 18.)

Hurlande, hurling, rushing, B. 413, 1211.

Hurle, rush, B. 44, 223, 376, 874, 1204; “hurlet out of houses,” T. B. 1365.

Hurrok, oar, A. 419; B. 185. Prov.E. orruck. “Orruck-holes, oar-drawing holes, as distinct from thole-pins, which are less used in our boats: rykke, to draw (Dan.). Compare English rullocks.” Norfolk 161 Words: Miss A. Gurney in Transactions of Philological Society for 1855, p. 34.

Huyde, hide, B. 915.

Huyle, while, A. 41.

Hwe, hue, A. 896; hwes, B. 1119.

Hwed, coloured, B. 1045.

Hyde, skin, A. 1136.

Hyl-coppe, hill-top, A. 791. See Coppe.

Hynde = hende, courteous, A. 909; B. 1098.

Hyne, servants; hinds, A. 505, 632, 1211. A.S. hina, hine (for higna, higne), a domestic. O.N. hion, family.

Hyre, sb. hire, wages, A. 534, 539.

Hyre, vb. A. 507, 560.

Hyrne, corner, A. 1294; B. 178. A.S. hyrne. “Hyd hom in houles and hyrnys aboute,” T. B. 1362.

Hytteȝ, strives, seeks, A. 132.

Hyue, hive, B. 223.

Hyure, hire, C. 56.

Hyȝe, high grounds, heights, B. 391.


high, A. 39, 395; A. 380; “on hyȝe,” A. 413; “hyȝe trot,” quick pace, B. 976.

Hyȝe, hie, hasten, A. 33, 392, 538; B. 217. A.S. higan, higian.

Hyȝe, labourer, servant, B. 67. A.S. higo, a servant. See Hine.

Hyȝly, greatly, B. 1527.

Hyȝt, named, called, promised, A. 305, 950; B. 24, 665, 1162.


Hyȝt, height, A. 458; B. 398.

Hyȝtled, ornamented, decorated, B. 1290.

“He had a hatt on his hede hiȝtild o floures.”

(K. Alex. p. 155.)


I-brad, extended, reached, B. 1693. See Brayde.

Ichose, chosen, A. 904.

Idolatrye, B. 1173.

Ilk, same, B. 1755.

Ille, bad, evil, B. 577.

Ilyche = alike, A. 228, 975; B. 161. A.S. gelíc.

Image, B. 983.

In-blande, together, B. 885. Dan. iblandt. See Bland.

Inflokke, flock in, B. 1767.

Inlyche, alike, A. 546, 603.

In-melle, among, A 1127. This word is usually written i-melle. Icel. á-milli.


among, amidst, B. 278, 1485.


amidst, B. 125, 1677.

Innocens, innocence, A. 708.


enough, sufficiently, A. 612, 625, 637; abundant, C. 528.

In-nome, taken in, A. 703.


innocent, A. 666, 672, 684.

Inobedyent, disobedient, B. 237. Fr. inobedient.

In-seme, together, A. 838. A.S. gesome. O.E. ysome.

In-stoundes, at times, B. 1603.

Instrumente, B. 1081.

Insyȝt, opinion, B. 1659.

Ire, wrath, B. 572.


Iwysse, truly, indeed, B. 84. A.S. gewis.

In-wyth, within, A. 970.


Jacynth, A. 1014.

Janglande, muttering, C. 90. O.Fr. jangler, to chatter.

Jape, device, sin, A. 272, 864; B. 57. Fr. japper, to yelp, chatter. The original meaning of jape is in O.E. to deceive, to lie.

Jasper, A. 999.

Jauele, a wicked wretch, a base fellow, B. 1495. “Javel, Joppus, gerro.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“The Lieutenant of the Tower advising Sir Thomas Moor to put on worse cloaths at his execution, gives this reason, because he that is to have them is but a javel; to which Sir Thomas replied, shall I count him a javel who is to doe me so great a benefit.” —MS. Lansd. 1033, in Hall.)

Jeaunte, giant, B. 272.


handsome, happy, true, A. 842, 929; A. 300, 864; B. 241.

Joparde, jeopardy, A. 602.

Jostyse, justice, judge, B. 877.

Journay, C. 355.

Jowked, slept, C. 182.


A. 266.

Joyfol, A. 288.

Joyleȝ, joyless, sorrowful, A. 252; C. 146.

Joyne, B. 726.

Joyned, A. 1009; B. 434.

Joyned, enjoined, A. 877; B. 62, 355.

Joynte, B. 1540.

Joyst, B. 434.


jewel, A. 249, 253, 278.


jeweller, A. 252, 264.

Juelrye, jewelry, B. 1309.

Jugge, judge, A. 7, 804; C. 224.

Juggement, judgment, B. 726.


judgment, doom, A. 726; B. 224.

Jumpred (? Jumpre from A.S. geomer, miserable, sad), trouble, B. 491.

Justyfyet, justified, A. 700.


Kable, B. 418.

Kake, B. 625, 635.

Kark, sorrow, C. 265. W. and Gael. carc, care.

Karle, churl, B. 208. See Chorle.

Kart, B. 1259.

Kayrene, to go, B. 945. See Cayre.

Kayser, emperor, B. 1593.

Kaȝt, caught, B. 1215.

Kene, great, noble, A. 839, 1593; sharp, B. 1697.

Kenely, quickly, B. 945.

Kenne, to know, make known, show, A. 55; A. 865, 1707; B. 357. O.N. kenna. Norse kjenna, to perceive by sense, recognise, observe.

Kennest, keenest, B. 1575.

Kepe, care for, regard, B. 508.

Kerve, dig, A. 512; cut, A. 1104; rend, B. 1582.


contrive, A. 1070, 1455; cast, A. 66; B. 414.

Keue, depart, A. 320.

Keued, separated, A. 981.

Keuer, recover, restore, B. 1605, 1700.


Keye, key, B. 1438.

Klubbe, club, B. 1348.

Klyffeȝ, cliffs, A. 66, 74.

Knaue, knave, A. 855; servant, B. 801.


know; knawen, known, A. 637; B. 1435, 1575.

Knawlach, knowledge, B. 1702; See T. B. 1083.

Knot, crowd, company, A. 788.

Knyt, knit, unite, establish, B. 564.

Kost, coast, border, B. 912.

Kote, house, B. 801.

Koynt = quaint, curious, crafty, B. 1382.

Krakke, sound, B. 1403.

Kuy, kine, cows, B. 1259.


showed, proved, (pret. of kythe), B. 23, 208. Kyde, as an adj. = renowned.

“This kyde realme.”

(T. B. 213.)

Kylle, to strike, B. 876. See T. B. 1211, 1213.

Kyndam, kingdom, B. 1700.

Kynde, nature, species, B. 266, 505, 507.


naturally, properly, A. 1, 319.

Kynne, conceive, B. 1072. A.S. cennan, to conceive, beget.

Kynned, kindled, B. 915. O.N. kynda.

Kynneȝ, “alle kynneȝ = of every kind,” A. 1028.

Kyntly = kyndly, naturally, A. 690.

Kyppe, take up, seize, B. 1510. Prov.E. kep. O.N. kippa. A.S. 163b cépan. See Robt. of Glouc. 125. Havelok the Dane, 2407. “Kyppyn’ idem quod Hynton;” “Kyppynge or hyntynge (hentynge, K. P.), Raptus.” (Prompt. Parv.)


church, temple, A. 1061; B. 1270.

Kyryous = curious, careful, particular, B. 1109.


chest, ark, A. 449, 1438; B. 159.

Kyþe, show, exhibit, A. 356; A. 851, acknowledge, B. 1368. A.S. cíthan, to make known.

“Ye kyþe me suche kyndnes,”

(T. B. 557.)


city, land, region, A. 1198; A. 414, 571, 901, 912; B. 18. A.S. cyth, a region, home, native place.

“Ther was a kyng in þat coste þat þe kithe ought.”

(T. B. 103.)

Kyþyn (gen. pl. of kyþe), of cities, B. 1366.


Labour, sb. A. 634; vb. A. 504.


= latch, take, receive, A. 166; lached, received, A. 1186; taken, A. 266; reach, C. 322; “lach out,” take away, B. 425. A.S. læccan.

Lad, led, A. 801.

Ladde = lad, man (of inferior station), A. 36; B. 154. O.H.G. laz, libertinus. Ger. lasse. Du. laete, a peasant.

Ladde-borde, larboard, C. 106.

Laddres, ladders, B. 1777.

Lade, led, A. 1146.


Ladyly, A. 774.

Ladyschyp, A. 578.

Lafte, left, B. 1004.

Laften, (3d pers. pl. pret.) left, A. 622; C. 405.


lake, deep, B. 438, 536.

Lakke, sin against, abuse, B. 723. Dan. and Sw. lak, fault, vice. Dan. lakke, decay, decline.


spoke, B. 153, 913. Dan. lalle, to prattle. Bavarian lallen, to speak thick, talk. Gr. λαλειν, to talk.

Lance, take, C. 350.

Langage, language, B. 1556.

Langour, sorrow, A. 357.

Lansed (? laused), uttered, A. 668; B. 489. Launch, in the dialect of Worcestershire, signifies to cry out, groan.

Lansed, ? quaked, B. 957.

Lanteȝ (? lanceȝ), lentest, gavest, B. 348.

Lantyrne, A. 1047.

Lape, lap, taste, B. 1434. Lape, lape, taste (Baker’s Northampton Glossary).

Lappe, sb. A. 201. A.S. læppa, border, hem. “Lappe, skyrte (lappe, barme, K.). Gremium.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“The word lap, according to many ancient writers, signified the skirt of a garment. Thus G. de Bibelsworth says,

‘Car par deuant avez eskours (lappes),

Et d’en costé sont vos girouns (sidgoren).’

It denoted, likewise, the hinder skirt.” (Way in Prompt. Parv.)


Lapped, folded, clothed, B. 175. See T. B. 236.

Lasched, B. 707. ? became hot, lascivious.

Lasned = lessened, made smaller, B. 438, 441.

Lasse, less, A. 599, 600; B. 1640.

Laste, follow, A. 1146; C. 320. A.S. last, footstep. Goth, laistjan, to follow after.

Laste, fault, crime, C. 198.

Lastes, becomes faulty, B. 1141. Dan. last, vice, fault. O.N. löstr. S.Sax. last, calumny, blame. Icel. last. Ger. lästerung, slander.

Lat, slow, late, B. 1172. A.S. læt, slow, late. Cf. “lat-a foot, slow in moving.” (Wilbraham’s Cheshire Glossary.)

Laþe, to invite, B. 81. A.S. lathian. O.Sax. lathian. O.N. lada. Prov.E. lathe, to invite. A.S. lathu, invitation. N.Prov.E. lathing, invitation.

Lauce, loosen, do away with (?), B. 1589.

Laue, law, B. 723.

Lauande, pouring, flowing, B. 366.

Laue, pour out, A. 607; C. 154. A.S. lafian.

Launceȝ, branches (of trees), A. 978.

Launde, an open space between woods, a park; lawn, B. 1000, 1207. “Saltus a lawnd.” (Nominale MS.) Welsh llan. “Lawnde of a wode. Saltus.” (Prompt. Parv.) “Indago, a parke, a huntynge place, or a launde.” (Ortus.) “Lande, a land or launde, a wild untilled 165 shrubbie or bushy plaine.” (Cotg.) O.Fr. lande, saltus.

“Sythyne [he] wente into Wales wyth his wyes alle;

Sweys into Swaldye with his snelle houndes,

For to hunt at the hartes in thas hye laundes.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 6.)

Lawe, hill, B. 992. Sc. law. A.S. hlæw, mound, mount. Goth. hlaiw.

Lawles, C. 170.

Lay, put down, B. 1650.

Layke, sb. sport, play, amusement, B. 122, 1053.

Layke, vb. to play, B. 872. A.S. lác, play; lácan, to play.

Layke, device, A. 274; B. 401.

Layned, kept secret, A. 244. N.Prov.E. lane, to hide. O.N. leyna.

Layth, vile, evil, C. 401. A.S. láth, evil, harm; láth, hateful, evil; “laithe hurtes,” T. B. 1351.

Layte, seek, search, B. 97, 1768. N.Prov.E. late. Icel. leita. Sw. leta, to look for; “laytyng aboute,” T. B. 2348.

Laȝares, lepers, B. 1093.

Laȝe, laugh, B. 653, 661.


= laught, took, A. 1128, 1205. See Lache.

Le, shelter, C. 277. A.S. hleo, shade, shelter. Cf. T. B. 2806. O.N. hlja, to protect. Cf. Leeside = the sheltered side of a ship.

“—— thar I the tell

Is the richt place and sted for ȝour cite,

And of ȝour travell ferm hald to rest in le.”

(G. Doug. vol. i. p. 152.)


“Þe wicked alsua þe gode sal se,

Wit-in þair gamen stad and gle,

Þat þai þe sorfuller sal be,

Þat losen folili has þat le.” (i.e., heaven).

(“De Penis,” quoted in “Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience,” l. 4, p. xii.)

Leauty, loyalty, B. 1172.

Lebarde, leopard, B. 536.

Lecherye, B. 1350.


man, person, A. 542; B. 412. A.S. leód, man.


people, nation, B. 691, 772, 909. A.S. leóde, people, folk.

Ledden = leden, sound, A. 878. Chaucer uses the word leden in the sense of speech, language. A.S. hlyd. O.N. hliod, a sound.

Ledisch, national, pertaining to a people or country, B. 1556. S.Sax. leodisce. See Lede.


adj. dear, precious; sb. dear one, wife, A. 266, 418; B. 772, 939, 1066. A.S. leóf.

Lefly, dear, beloved, B. 977. A.S. leóflíc.

Lefsel, bower, house formed of leaves, C. 448.

“By a lauryel ho (Dame Gaynour) lay, vndur a lefe-sale,

Of box and of barberè, byggyt ful bene.”

(The Anturs of Arther in Robson’s Met. Rom. p. 3, vi. 5.)

“With lefsales uppon lofte lustie and faire.”

(T. B. 337.)

A.S. leaf, a leaf, and sel, dwelling, hall. Sw. löfsal, a hut built of green boughs. Levesel (another form of lefsel) is used 166 by Chaucer (Reve’s Tale, 4059), but is left unexplained in the glossary to Wright’s edition. Tyrwhitt’s derivation of this term from A.S. lefe, folium, and setl, sedes, is certainly very near the mark. Cf. “levecel beforne a wyndowe, or other place. Umbraculum.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Lege, liege, subject, B. 94, 1174.

Legioune, A. 1121, B. 1293.

Lel, true, B. 425. “Leve this for lell.” T. B. 239.

Lelly, truly, faithfully, A. 305; B. 1066. See T. B. 420.

Leme, glide away, A. 358.

Leme, shine, gleam, A. 119, 1043; B. 1273. A.S. leóma, a ray of light; leóman, to shine. See T. B. 699.

Lemman = leof-man, beloved one, mistress, A. 763, 796, 805; B. 1352. A.S. leóf, dear, and man. O.E. leofmon, a lover.

Lene, grant, C. 347. A.S. lænian.

Lenge, dwell, abide, A. 261, 933; A. 81, 412, 497, 994; B. 42. See T. B. 1937.

Lenger, longer, A. 600, 977; A. 810; lengest, B. 256.

Lenghe, length, A. 416.

Lent (pret. of lend), abode, dwelt, A. 256; watȝ lent, had dwelt, B. 1084.

Lent, arrived, C. 201. A.S. gelandian, to land, arrive.

“Langour lent is in land, all lychtnes is lost.”

(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 447.)

Lenþe, length, A. 1031; B. 425, 1594.


Lep, leaped, C. 179.

Lere, to teach, B. 843. A.S. læran

Lere, reward, ? here, A. 616.


countenance, A. 398; pl. lers, features, B. 1542 A.S. hleor. See T. B. 480.

Lese, false, A. 865. See Lese.

Lesande, loosening, opening, A. 837. O.E. lese, les, to loose. Goth. lausjan.

Lese, false, B. 1719. A.S. leas.


lost, A. 9; B. 887.

Lesyng, sb. lie, A. 897. A.S. leasung.

Leþe, assuage, lessen, cease, bate, cool. A. 377; A. 648; B. 3. A.S. leothian, to release, slacken. See Met. Hom. p. 135.

Leþe, sb. calm, C. 160. N.Prov.E. leath, rest, quiet. Stratmann compares O.Du. lede, ease, leath.

Lether, leather, B. 1581.

Lette, hinder, prevent, A. 1050; B. 1803.

Letter, B. 1580.

Lettrure, letters, learning, A. 751.

Leue, “aske leue,” A. 316; “take leue,” B. 401.

Leue, forsake, C. 401.

Leue, believe, A. 69, 865, 876; B. 1493.

Leued, leaved, A. 978.

Lewed, ignorant, B. 1580. A.S. leóde, leúd, the people.

Lik, to lick, B. 1000.

Likke, sip, drink, B. 1521.

Liureȝ, dresses, garments, A. 1108. O.Fr. livree.

Lode, lot, C. 156.


Lode, course, conduct, guidance, C. 504. A.S. lád, ládu, way. O.N. leid, course. Cf. lode, a way for water.

Lodesmon, conductor, pilot, A. 424; B. 179. A.S. ládman, a leader.


loathsome, hateful, vile, B. 274, 1090, 1093. N.Prov.E. laidly, ugly, foul. A.S. láthlíc, odious, detestable.

“He laid on þat loodly, lettyd he noght.” (T. B. 934.)

Lofly, dear, lovely, B. 1804.

Lofte, “upon lofte,” on high, B. 206, 318, 808. O.N. lopt, sky, air.


tent, lodge, A. 784, 807, 1407; B. 457. Fr. loge, a hut. See T. B. 1140, 1369.

Logging, lodging, B. 887.


= low, lau, pit, deep, abyss, B. 366. O.N. lagr. Sw. låg, low.

Lokande, looking, C. 458.

Loke = loken, enclosed, C. 350.

Loke, guard, watch over, C. 504.

Lokyng, sb. sight, looking, A. 1049.

Loltrande, ? loitrande, lolling, loitering, C. 458. Du. loteren, to loiter. O.N. lotra, to go lazily.

Lombe, lamb, A. 841, 1047.

Lome, lame, B. 1094.

Lome, vessel, instrument of any kind; (1) ark; (2) boat, A. 314, 412, 443; B. 160. A.S. gelóma, lóma.

Lomerande, hesitating, creeping, 167b B. 1094. This term seems to be connected with lumber. O.E. lumer, lomer, to move heavily. O.Du. lammer, lemmer, impedimentum, molestia. (Kil.) Dan. belemre. Du. belemmern, to encumber, impede.

Lompe, lamp, A. 1046.

Londe, land, A. 148, 937.

Lone, path, lane, A. 1066. N.Prov.E. lone, lannin. Fris. lona, lana, a narrow way between gardens and houses. Is it connected with O.N. leyna, to hide, conceal?

Longande, belonging, A. 462.

Longed, belonged, B. 1090, 1747.

Lont, land, C. 322.

Lopen (p.p. of lepe, to leap), leapt, B. 990.

Lore, wisdom, learning, B. 1556. A.S. lár.

Lore, mode, wise, A. 236.

Lorn, lost, destroyed, B. 932.

Los, loss, B. 1589.

Lose, destroy, A. 909; C. 198; depart, be lost, B. 908.

Losed, lost, B. 586.

Losyng, perdition, B. 1031.

Losynger, sb. liar, deceiver. O.Fr. losengier.


sound, noise, roar, A. 876; C. 161, 183; word, B. 668. Sw. låta, to sound; låt, sound; låte, cry, voice. A.S. hleóthor, a sound, noise. O.E. lud, voice. The original form of the word is late.

“Than have we liking to lithe (listen to) the lates of the foules.”

(K. Alex. p. 149.)


“(He) late so lathely a late and sa loude cried

That all the fest was aferd and othire folke bathe.”

(K. Alex. p. 17.)

“He gaped, he groned faste, with grucchande latez.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 90.)

Lote = late, countenance, feature, form, manner, A. 899; C. 47. This word occurs in Laȝamon under the form late, looks, glances. Glossarial remarks to Laȝamon, p. 449. Lete, countenance, is found in the Owl and Nightingale, 35, 403. A.S. wlite. O.N. læti.

Lote, lot, A. 1205; C. 173.

Lote = lout, bow, A. 238. A.S. lútan, to bend, bow, stoop. Sw. luta. See T. B. 1900.

Loþe, sb. sorrow, A. 377. A.S. láth, evil, harm.

Loþelych, wicked, bad, B. 1350.

Loute, abide, sit, A. 933.

Loute, bow, make obeisance. B. 798. See Lote.

Louande, praising, B. 1719.

Loue, praise, A. 285, 1124, 1127; B. 497, 987. A.S. lofian.

Loueȝ, hands, B. 987. N.Prov.E. leuf, palm of the hand, and hence used for the hand itself. Palm is used for the hand in early English authors. O.N. lofi. Sc. loof.

“(He) held the letter in his love.”

(K. Alex. p. 71.)

“——he takis

The licor in his awen (one) loove,

the letter in the tothire.”

(Ibid. l. 2569.)

Loueloker, more lovely, A. 148.


Lovne, offer (advice), propose, C. 173. N.Prov.E. loave, loff, to offer. O.N. lofa, promise, praise. Du. looven. Flem. loven, estimate. Cf. “Lovon and bedyn as chapmen, Licitor.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Louy, love, B. 841, 1053.


lovely, A. 565, 693; B. 1486.

Lowe, flame; “luf lowe,” flame of love, B. 707. O.E. logh (see T. B. 168) “the lowe hot,” T. B. 494.

Lowkande, locking, shutting, B. 441.


the deep, pit, sea, A. 119; A. 441, 1031; B. 230. See Loghe.

Loȝ, Loȝe, low, B. 798, 1761.

Loȝed, made low, abased, B. 1650.

Loȝen, laughed (3rd pers. pl. pret. of laȝe, B. 495.

Loȝly, humbly, B. 614, 745.

Luche, pitch, throw, C. 230. N.Prov.E. lutch, to pulsate strongly. W. lluchio, to fling, throw violently. Stratmann suggests A.S. lyccan, pull, lutch.


national, B. 73, 1375. See Ledisch.

Luf, gen. sing., of love, B. 707.


lovely, A. 880; A. 81; 939; B. 419.

Lufsoum, sb. lovesome, beloved one, A. 398.

Luged, was pulled, B. 443. O.N. lugga.


Lulted, sounded, B. 1207. O.N. lulla, to lull, sing to sleep. Cf. “lullit on slepe,” T. B. 648. Ger. lallen, to sing without words, only repeating the syllable la. N.Prov.E. lilt, to sing with a loud voice; lilt, a song.

Luly-whit, lilly-white, B. 977.

Lumpen, befallen, B. 424, 1320. See Lympe.

Lur, loss, C. 419.

“What lure is of my lyfe & I lyffe here.”

(T. B. 582.)

Lureȝ, losses, A. 339, 358. A.S. lyre, lor.


A. 978; C. 277. See T. B. 1140.

Lusty, B. 981.

Luther, bad, wicked, A. 163, 1090; B. 156. A.S. lyther.

Luuy, love. See Louy.

Lyf, life, B. 1719.

Lyflode, sustenance in life, B. 561. A.S. lif-láde, from lád, a way.


heavens, firmament, sky, B. 212, 366, 1356, 1448. A.S. lyft.

Lyftande, lifting, rising, B. 443.

Lyfte, raised, A. 567.

Lyfte, left, B. 981, 1581.

Lygge, lie, B. 1126, 1792. A.S. licgan.

Lyke, vb. impers. please, A. 566; B. 36, 411, 693, 1646.

Lyke, adj. pleasing, C. 42.

Lykker, more like, C. 493.

Lykneȝ, likens, compares, A. 500; is like, B. 1064.

Lyknyng, sb. likeness, C. 30.

Lykoreȝ, liquors, drinks, B. 1521.


Lykyng, sb. pleasure, A. 247; B. 172, 1803. See T. B. 2912.

Lylled, flourished, shone, C. 447. N.Prov.E. lilli-lo, a bright flame. Cf. Mod. Gr. λουλούδι, a blossom; λουλουδιαζω, to flourish, bloom. Is lylle, to flourish, connected with the word lilly?

Lympe, befall, happen, C. 174, 194. See T. B. 36. A.S. limpan, to happen, concern.

Lyne, lineage, A. 626.

Lynne, linen, A. 731.

Lyre, flesh, B. 1687. A.S. lira.

Lysoun, trace, B. 887.


sb. pleasure, A. 467, 908; A. 843; lust, A. 693; vb. desire, please, A. 146; B. 415, 1766.

Lyst, path, border, B. 1761. Du. lijst, edge, border.

Lysten, to hear, A. 880.

Lysten, hearing, B. 586. A.S. hlist, hearing; hlistan, to hear, listen. O.N. hlust, an ear.

Lyte, little, B. 119.

Lyth, limb, A. 398. A.S. lith.

Lyþe, assuage, lessen, A. 357. See Leþe.

Lyþe, grant, A. 369.

Lyþer, evil, wickedly, A. 567. See Luþer.

Lyþerly, badly, negligently, B. 36.


live, A. 558, 581; B. 364.

Lyuyande, living, A. 700.

Lyȝe, lie, A. 304.

Lyȝt, light, A. 69, 1043; bright, A. 500; innocent, guiltless, pure, A. 682; B. 987; lette 170 lyȝt, esteem, treat lightly, B. 1174, 1320.


vb. to light, fall upon, A. 247, 943, 988; B. 213, 1069.

Lyȝten, to lighten, C. 160.

Lyȝtly, easily, A. 358; soon, quickly, A. 817, 853; C. 88. Comp. lyȝtloker, B. 47.


Ma, make, A. 283; B. 625.

Ma, man (?), A. 323.


= make, fellow, companion, B. 124, 695, 1512. See Make.

Mache, to make familiar with, C. 99.


foolish, A. 267, 290, 1166; B. 654. Prov. Ger. maden, to tattle; madeln, to mutter.

“Thi momlyng and thi mad wordes.”

(See T. B. 1864.)

Madde, vb. to render foolish, A. 359.

Maddyng, folly, A. 1154.

Madding marrid has thi mode, and thi mynd changid.”

(K. Alex. p. 121.)


= mach, match, equal, fellow, wife, A. 759; B. 248, 331, 994. A.S. maca, a mate; mace, a wife.

“Þe king him (Joseph) did a wiif to tak,

Hight Assener, a doghti mak.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27a.)

Makeleȝ, matchless, A. 435, 733, 757, 780.

Male, B. 337, 695.

Malicious, C. 508.


Malscrande, accursed, B. 991.

Malskred, bewildered, C. 255. Bosworth quotes “malscra, a bewitching,” upon the authority of Somner.


ease, assuage, soothe, B. 776, 1566. O.N. melta, to dissolve.

Malte, discourse, speak, A. 224, 1154. A.S. mælan, to speak, converse; mathelian, mæthlan, to discourse.


A. 250, 518; B. 4.

Man = maken (3d pers. pl. pres.), make, A. 512.

Manace, threaten, C. 422.

Manayre, manor, A. 1029.

Mancioun, mansion, B. 309.

Maner, manner, B. 701.

Maner, manor, A. 918.

Manerly, properly, decently, B. 91.

Mangerie, feast, B. 52, 1365. Fr. manger, to eat, from Lat. manducare.

Mankyn, mankind, A. 637.

Mansed, cursed, A. 774; B. 82. A.S. a-mánsumian, to excommunicate.

Mantyle, mantle, C. 342.

Marchal, marshal, B. 91, 118.

Mare, more, A. 145.


pearl, A. 199, 1037; B. 556.

Marie, marry, B. 52.

Marked, market, A. 513.

Marre, corrupt, spoil, destroy, perish, A. 23; A. 279, 991; B. 172, 474. O.H.G. marrjan, to hinder, make void. A.S. merran, 171 myrran, to hinder. Du. merren, to obstruct.

Marereȝ = marreȝ (?). A. 382.


A. 414, 778; B. 186.

Maryed, married, B. 815.

Marryng, sb. spoiling, preventing, B. 186.

Marschal, B. 1427.

Maryners, C. 99.

Mas, mass, A. 1115.

Mascelleȝ, spotless, A. 732.

Mascle, spot, A. 726. Du. maese, masche, maschel, a spot, stain; maschelen, to stain.

Mase (masse), astonishment, alarm, B. 395.


spotless, A. 744, 745, 756, 768.

Maskle, spot, stain, B. 556. See Mascle.

Masporye (?), A. 1018.

Mate, dejected, downcast, subdued, A. 386. Fr. mat.

Mate, to overcome, A. 613. Fr. mater. O.Fr. amater. Cf. Du. mat, exhausted, overcome. Ger. matt, feeble, faint.

Mater, subject, B. 1617.

Matere, matter, C. 503.


C. 44, 54. Fr. malgré, in spite of, against the will of; mal, ill; gré, will, pleasure. In B. 250 mawgre is used as a sb. = displeasure.

Mawe, stomach, C. 255. Ger. magen. Du. maag.

May, maid. A. 435, 780. A.S. mæg.

Maynful, great, powerful, A. 1093; 171b B. 1730. A.S. mægen, power, force, strength. O.N. megin, strength; mega, to be able.

Maynly, loudly, B. 1427.

Mayntnaunce, maintenance, B. 186.

Mayntyne, maintain, C. 523.

Mayster, master, lord, A. 462, 900; B. 1793.

Maysterful, powerful, A. 401; B. 1328.

Maystery, mastery, C. 482.

Maȝt, power, C. 112. Goth. mahts. Ger. macht, might, power.

Maȝty, mighty, B. 273, 279.

Maȝtyly, mightily, B. 1267.

Mede = meed, reward, B. 1632.

Medoes, meadows, B. 1761.

Megre, meagre, lean, B. 1198. Fr. maigre. Lat. macer, lean.

Mekne, make meek, B. 1328.

Mele, meal, B. 625.

Mele, sb. discourse, A. 23.

Mele, vb. to talk, relate, say, A. 497, 589; A. 736; B. 10.

“To mele of this mater.” (T. B. 209.)

Melle, speak, A. 797. See Malte.

Membreȝ, members, A. 458.

Mendes, amends, A. 351.

Mendyng, sb. improvement, repentance, A. 452; B. 764.

Mene, general, common, B. 1241. A.S. gemæne. Ger. gemein.

Mene, mean, A. 293.

Mene, tell, explain, B. 1635. A.S. mænan, to tell.


mix, join, B. 337, 625. A.S. mengan.


sb. honour, A. 162, 783; A. 121, 522; thanks, B. 646; vb. to honour, 172 B. 141, 1740. A.S. mennisc, human. N.Prov.E. mense, to grace, deck; mense, decency, good manners.

Mensked, honoured, B. 118.

Menteene, maintain, A. 783.

Mercy, A. 576, 623.

Mercyable, merciful, A. 1113; B. 238.

Mercyles, B. 250.

Mere = meer, boundary, A. 778; B. 320. Du. meere. O.N. mæri, boundary.

Mere, sea, lake, stream, A. 140, 158, 1166; A. 991; B. 112. A.S. mere. O.Sax. meri. O.N. mar.

Merit, B. 613.

Merk, adj. dark, obscure, B. 1617.

Merk, sb. darkness, A. 894; B. 291. A.S. myrc, dark. O.N. myrkr, darkness; myrka, to darken, grow dark.

Merke, make, devise, order, place, B. 558, 637, 1487, 1617. A.S. mearcian. O.N. merkia, to mark, perceive, signify.

Mersy, A. 383; B. 776.


adj. marvellous, A. 81; sb. a marvel, C. 1081, 1130; B. 586.

Meruelous, A. 1166.

Mery, pleasant, B. 1760.

Mes, A. 862. See Messe.

Message, A. 454; B. 81.

Meschef, evil, misfortune, A. 275; B. 373, 1164.

Mese, moderate, temper, assuage, B. 764. See Methe.

“Sir Pylate mefe you now no more,

But mese youre hart, and mend youre mode.”

(Town. Myst. p. 175.)


“Kyng Eolus set hie apon his chare,

With ceptoure in hand, thar muyd

(mood) to meys and stille.”

(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 27.)

“The blastis mesit.”

(Ibid. p. 130.)

“A mes you of malice,

but a mene qwile.”

(T. B. 12842.)

Messe, mass, service, A. 497.

Messeȝ, messes (of meat), B. 637.

Mester, need, A. 67; B. 342.

Mesure, measure, moderation, A. 224; A. 215, 247, 565; B. 295.

Mesurable, mild, temperate, B. 859.

Metalles, B. 1513.

Mete, meat, food, applied to an apple, A. 641.

Meten, to measure, A. 1032.


moderation, mildness, pity, B. 247, 436, 565.

“And Mari ledd hir life with methe

In a toun that hiht Nazarethe.”

(Met. Hom. p. 107.)

A.S. mæthian, to measure, estimate, use gently; mæth, measure, degree; mæthlic, kind, courteous. N.Prov.E. meedless, without measure, immoderate.

Meþeleȝ, immoderate, B. 273.

Mette, measure, B. 625.

Metȝ = mese (?), pity, B. 215.

Meuande, moving, B. 783.

Meue, move, A. 156; B. 303.

Meuen (3rd pers. pl. pres.), move, A. 64. See T. B. 384.

Meyny, labourers, servants, A. 542; household, A. 331; company, A. 892, 899, 925; A. 454; B. 10.

Miry, pleasant, C. 32.

Misschapen (monstrous), wicked, B. 1355.


Mistrauthe, unbelief, B. 996.

Mo, more, A. 870, 1194; B. 674.


= mood, pride, A. 401, 738; B. 565, 764.

Moder, mother, A. 435.


= proud, haughty, A. 1303; B. 422.

Mokke, muck, dirt, A. 905.

Mol = mul, dust, A. 382. Flem. mul, gemul, dust. Du. mullen, to crumble. Pl. D. mull, loose earth, dust. Cf. “peat-mull,” the dust and fragments of peat. (Brockett.)

Molde, earth, A. 279; moldeȝ, lands, A. 454; “on molde,” on earth, A. 514, 1114; “in moldeȝ,” in earth, B. 494. A.S. molde, mould, earth. Goth. mulda. O.H.G. molta. Dan. muld.

“Loo! here the duchez dere to daye was cho takyne,

Depe dolvene and dede, dyked in moldez.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 82.)

Mon, man, A. 310.

Mon, moan, sorrow, A. 374.

Mone, moon, A. 923.

Monkynd, mankind, B. 564.

Mon-sworne, perjury, B. 182. Other forms of this word are main-sworn, man-sworn. O.H.Ger. meinsweridi, perjury, from main, mein, spot, stain, injury, impure, bad. O.N. mein, sore, crime.

Mony, many, A. 572; B. 1164.

Monyth, month, B. 493, 1030.

Moon, moan, sorrow, B. 373.

Moote = mote, spot, blemish, A. 948.


Mor, moor, B. 385, 1673. A.S. mór, a moor, heath.

Morehond, more, A. 475. Cf. nerehande, near; betuixande, betwixt.


morning, A. 493; morrow, B. 1001.

Mornyf, mournful, A. 386.

Mornyng, sb. mourning, A. 262.

Morteres, mortars, B. 1487.


greatest, B. 254, 385.

Mot, must, may, A. 397, 663.


spot, blemish, sin, A. 764, 843, 855. Du. mot, dust.

Mote, vb. speak to, A. 613. A.S. mótian, to moot, debate. Then Medea with mowthe motys thus agayne. T. B. 610.

Mote, building, dwelling, abode, A. 142, 936, 937, 948, 949; city, C. 422. Mote signifies a hill, mound, moat, and hence a city on a hill (?). Mid. Lat. mota, hill or mound. O.Fr. mote.

“Þe bryght ceté of heven is large and brade,

Of whilk may na comparyson be made

Tille na ceté þat on erth may stand,

Ffor it was never made with mans hand.

Bot yhit, als I ymagyn in my thoght,

I lyken it tylle a ceté þat war wroght

Of gold, of precyouse stones sere,

Opon a mote, sett of berylle clere,

With walles, and wardes, and turrettes,

And entré, and yhates, and garrettes.”

(Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience, p. 239, l. 8896.)

MS. Lansd. 348, reads mount for mote.


spotless, A. 899.

Moul = mould, earth, A. 23.

Moun (3rd pers. pl. of mowe, to be able), are able, A. 536.

Mount, A. 868; B. 447.

Mountaunce, amount, C. 456.

Mountayne, B. 385.


= amounts, avails, A. 351; C. 332.

Mourkenes, mirkens, becomes dark, B. 1760. O.N. myrka, to darken, Dan. mörkne.

Mourkne, to rot, become rotten, B. 407. From this verb is derived the O.E. morkin, a dead beast, carrion, a scarecrow. O.N. morkinn, rotten; morkna, to rot.

Mourne, to mourn, C. 508.

Moȝt, might, could, B. 1108, 1668.

Mudde, B. 407.

Mukel, great, B. 52, 366, 1164. O.N. mikill.

Mul, dust, dirt, A. 905; B. 736. See Mol.

Multyplyed, B. 278.

Mun, C. 44. This may be another form of mon = moan. But the phrase “maugre his mun,” leads us to reject this interpretation. Maugre is generally used with some part of the body, as “mawgre his tethe,” “maugre his chekes,” etc. Mun may therefore signify the mouth. (Sw. mun, a mouth.) The term is still retained in the north of England. Halliwell quotes the following: 174b

“A common cry at Coventry on Good Friday is—

‘One a penny, two a penny, hot cross buns,

Butter them and sugar them and put them in your muns.’”

Munster = minster, church, cathedral, temple, A. 1267; B. 268.

Munt, purpose, A. 1161. N.Prov.E. munt, a hint. See Mynt.

Murte, break, crush, C. 150. Pl. D. murten, to crush. See to-murte. In T. B. 4312 we have myrte = to crush. Bothe mawhownus & maumettes myrtild in peces.

Myddeȝ, midst, A. 740. See In-myddeȝ.

Mydnyȝt, midnight, B. 894.

Myke, sb. B. 417. Cf. Du. mik. The crutches of a boat, which sustain the main boom or mast and sail when they are lowered for the convenience of rowing.

Mykeȝ, free labourers (?), A. 572. A.S. mecg, a man. In the Cursor Mundi, Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 17, the angels are represented as speaking to Lot as follows:

“‘Has þou her,’ þai said, ‘ani man,

Sun or doghter, mik or mau,

To þe langand, or hei or lau

Þou lede þam suith out o þis tun

Ar þat hit be sunken don.’” But ? be mykeȝ = he mykeȝ, he chooses.

Myneȝ, “me myneȝ,” I remember, B. 25. A.S. mynan, to remember. O.N. minna.

Mynge, record, mention, A. 855. A.S. myngian, to remind.


Mynne, recollect, remember, A. 583; B. 436, 771. See T. B. 1434. See Myneȝ.

Mynte, devise, purpose, B. 1628. A.S. myntan, myntian to dispose, settle, appoint. “Myntyn’ or amyn’ towarde for to assayen. Attempto.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Mynstralsy, B. 121.

Mynyster, minster, temple, A. 1063.

Mynystre, vb. B. 644.

Myre, B. 1114.

Myrþeȝ, joys, A. 140.

Myrþeȝ, gladdens, A. 862.


= merry, pleasant, A. 23, 158; A. 417, 804; myryer, A. 850; myryest, B. 435.

Myryly, pleasantly, joyously, B. 493.


wrong, sin, A. 262; C. 420.

Myserecorde, mercy, A. 366.

Myse-tente, misunderstood, A. 257.

Mysse, to lose, A. 329; B. 189. O.N. missa, to lose. Du. missen, to fail, miss.

Mysse, loss, grief, A. 364.

Mysseleue, unbelief, B. 1230.

Mysse-payed, displeased, C. 399.

Mysse-ȝeme, mis-use, A. 322.

Myst, B. 1760.

Myste, mysteries, secrets, (?), A. 462.

Mysterys, A. 1194.

Myþe, to trouble, weary (?), A. 359. A.S. méthe, wearied; méth, feeble.

Myȝt, might, A. 630.

Myȝtes = mights, powers, B. 644, 1699.



Nadde = ne hadde, had not, B. 404.

Nakeryne (gen. pl. of naker), B. 1413; naker, nacaire, seems to signify a kettle-drum.

Nas = ne was, was not, B. 727, 983.

Nature, A. 749.

Nauel, C. 278.

Naule, nail, A. 459.


nevertheless, A. 877, 950.


neither, A. 1087; B. 1226.

Nawhere, nowhere, A. 534.

Nay, refuse, deny, B. 805.

Nayed, refused, B. 65.

Nayt, use, employ, B. 531. See T. B. 1038. A.S. neotan. O.N. nyta.

Naytly, neatly, dexterously, B. 480. See T. B. 2427. Nestor, a noble man, naitest in werre. T. B. 1038. N.Prov.E. nately, neatly.

Naȝte, night, A. 1203; B. 484, 807, 1002.

Ne, nor, B. 1226.

Nece, niece, A. 233.

Nedde, needed, A. 1044; hem nedde = they needed.


of necessity, A. 344.

Nedleȝ, needless, useless, A. 381; B. 220.

Nee = ne, nor, A. 262.

Nel, ne wille, will not, B. 513.

Nem, took (pret. of nimme), A. 802; B. 505.

Nemme, name, A. 997. See T. B. 152.


Nente, ninth, A. 1012.

Nere, ne were, were not, B. 21.


near, nigh, A. 286, 404; wel ner, nearly, B. 1585.

Nerre, nearer, A. 233; C. 85.

Nesch, gently, A. 606. A.S. hnesc, soft, tender.

Neue, fist, hand, B. 1537. N.Prov.E. neve, neif, a fist. O.N. hnefi.

Neuen, name, B. 410, 1376, 1525. O.N. nafn, a name; nefna, to name.


nigh, near, A. 528; B. 803.


approach, B. 32, 143, 805, 1016, 1754

Nice, adj. foolish, A. 1354; sb. B. 1359. Fr. nice, foolish, simple.

Nif, ne-if, if not, B. 30.

Niye, trouble, B. 1002.

Noble, A. 1097.

Nobley, nobleness, B. 1091.

No-bot, only, B. 1127. N.Prov.E. no-bot.

Nok, nook, C. 278.

Nolde, ne wolde, would not, B. 805, 1091.


took, A. 587; B. 1613; pret. of nimme, to take.

Nome, name, A. 872.

Nomen, seized, taken; p.p. of nimme, A. 1281; B. 360.

Norne, entreat, ask, B. 803. A.S. gnornian, to complain, murmur.

Norture, nurture, B. 1091.

Note, city, A. 922; B. 1233.

Note, devise, ordain, A. 1651; B. 220.

Note, device, purpose, A. 155; 176b B. 381, 727. A.S. nota, use, duty, employment; notian, to employ, use.

“The Bibel telles us openlye

Of Nembrot and his maistri,

Hou the fole that was wit him

Bigan to mak a tour that tim,

That suld reche to the lifte;

Bot Godd that skilfulli kan skift.

Mad them alle serely spekand,

That nan moht other understand,

And gert them lef thair wilgern werk,

Bot of thair not yet standes merk,

In Babilony the tour ȝet standes,

That that folk mad wit thair handes.”

(Met. Hom. p. 61.)

“Mony noble for þe nonest to þe note gode.”

(T. B. 284.)

Note, A. 879, 883.

Notyng, device, devising, B. 1354. See Note.

Noumbre, number, B. 1283, 1376.

Nouþe, now, C. 414.

Nowþelese, nevertheless, A. 889.

Noye, trouble, annoy, B. 1236.


A. 849; B. 490.

Noȝt, naught, nothing, A. 520; A. 888; not, B. 106.

Noȝty, bad, B. 1359.

Nummen (p.p. nimme), taken, A. 1291; B. 76.

Nurne, speak, say, B. 669.

Nuye, displease, B. 578.

Nuyed, troubled, B. 1176.


new, A. 527; anew, A. 1079.

Nwy, wrath, B. 301.

Nwyed, displeased, B. 306.

Nye, trouble, A. 1376; nyes, troubles, A. 1754; B. 76.

Nyed, troubled, B. 1603.

Nyf = ne if, if not, B. 424.


Nyl, ne wyl, will not, A. 1261; B. 41.

Nylt, ne wylt, wilt not, C. 346.


take, B. 481. A.S. niman.

Nys, ne ys, is not, A. 951.

Nyse, nice, dainty, B. 824.

Nyteled, laboured, toiled, B. 888. Prov.E. nattle, to endeavour, to be busy about trifles. O.E. nyte, to use, employ, enjoy. O.N. nyta.

Nyȝe, nigh, A. 484; wel nyȝe, B. 704.


night, A. 243; B. 526.


Obeche, reverence, B. 745. Prov. Fr. obezir.

Obes, obey, A. 886.

Odde, (1) not even, A. 426; (2) spotless, faultless, B. 505. See T. B. 4401, 6157, 6172, 6179, 6189, 6194, 6198.

Oddely, (a) alone, A. 923; (b) nobly, B. 698.

(b) “I Alexandre the aire and eldest childe hattene,

Of kyng Philip the fers, that fest am in Grece,

And of the quene Olimpades, the oddest under heven,

To all ȝow of Athenes, thus I etill my saȝes.”

(K. Alex. p. 79.)

“For thai the mesure and the mett of alle the mulde couthe,

The sise of alle the grete see and of the gryme wawys,

Of the ordere of that odde home [heaven] that overe the aire hingis.”

(Ibid. p. 2.)

Oke, oak, B. 602.


Olipraunce, vanity, fondness for gay apparel, B. 1349. Prov.E. olypraunce, a merry making.

“Of tournamentys y preue thereynne

Seven poyntes of dedly synne;

Fyrst ys pryde, as þou wel wost

Avauntement, bobaunce and bost;

Of rych atyre ys here avaunce,

Prykyng here hors wyth olypraunce.”

(Robt. of Brunne’s Handlyng Synne, p. 145.)

On, an, A. 9.

One, alone, self, B. 872, 923, 1669.

Onelych, only, B. 1749.

Oneȝ, once, B. 801.

Onhede, unity, concord, B. 612.

On-hit, struck, inflamed with anger (?), C. 411. A.S. onhætan to inflame, heat.

On-lofte, aloft, on high, B. 692; 947.

On-ryȝt, aright, B. 1513.

On-sydeȝ, aside, C. 219.

On-wyde, about, B. 1423.

On-yȝed, one-eyed, B. 102.

Ordaynt, ordained, B. 237.

Ordenaunce, ordinance, B. 698.

Ordure, filth, B. 1092.

Ore, oar, C. 218.

Orenge, orange, B. 1044.

Organe, B. 1081.

Orisoun, prayer, C. 328.

Ornemente, ornament, B. 1799.

Orppedly, quickly, B. 623. N.Prov.E. orput, quick (at learning). Orped is generally derived from O.N. verpa, to throw; p.p. orpinn. But this etymology is very doubtful. Cf. “Orpud, audax, bellipotens.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Ossed, showed, C. 213. N.Prov.E. 178 awse, oss, to attempt, offer. W. osi.

“Quat and has thou ossed to Alexander

this ayndain (angry) wirdes.”

(K. Alex., p. 79.)

Oste, host, army, B. 1204.

Oþer, or, A. 141.

Ouer-borde, C. 157.

Ouer-brawden, covered over, B. 1698.

Ouer-seyed, passed over, gone, B. 1686.

Ouer-tan, overtaken, C. 127.

Ouer-þwert, across, B. 316, 1384.

Ouer-tok, B. 1213.

Ouer-torne, past, B. 1192.

Ouer-walte, overflowed, B. 370.

Ouer-ȝede, past, went, B. 1753.

Ouerte, open, clear, A. 593.

Ouerture, opening, A. 218.

Oure, prayer, A. 690.

Out-borst, vb. outburst, B. 1251.

Out-comlyng, a stranger, B. 876. N.Prov.E. out-cumling, a foreigner, stranger. The more usual form in early English is comling.

Out-dryf, drive out, A. 777.

Out-fleme, banished, A. 1177. See Fleme.

Out-kast, B. 1679.

Out-sprent, outburst, A. 1137.

Out-taken, excepted, B. 1573.

Out-tulde, thrown out, C. 231.

Oȝe = owe, ought, A. 552.


vb. ought, A. 341.


pr. aught, A. 274; B. 663.


Pace, passage, A. 677.


A. 1, 36.

Pakke, pack, B. 1282.

Pakke, company, A. 929.


B. 83, 1389, 1531.

Pale, A. 1004.

Palle = pall, fine cloth, B. 1384, 1637.

Pane, a side, division of a building, A. 1034. Lat. pagina, a leaf, any flat expanse. “A pane, piece or pannel of a wall, of wainscot, of a glasse window.” (Cotg.) “Pane of a wall, pan de mur.” (Palsg.)

Panne, head, but we may read paune, paws, claws, B. 1697.

Papeiay = a popinjay, a parrot, B. 1465. It. papagallo. O.Fr. papegau, papegay. Sp. papagayo, parrot.

Parage, kindred, rank, nobleness, A. 419; B. 167. O.Fr. parage.

Paramoreȝ, paramours, lovers, B. 700. Fr. par amour, by way of love.

Paraunter, peradventure, A. 588.

Parchmen, parchment, B. 1134.

Pare, cut, B. 1408, 1536.

Parform, perform, A. 542; B. 406.

Parfyt, perfect, A. 638.

Parget, plaister of a wall, B. 1536. “Pariette for walles, blanchissure.” (Palsg.)

Parlatyk, paralytic, B. 1095.

Partleȝ, partless, portionless, A. 335.

Partrykes, partridges, B. 57.

Pass, surpass, A. 428.

Passage, journey, C. 97.


Passande, passing, B. 1389.

Pasture, C. 393.

Pater, paternoster, A. 485.

Paume, palm, hand, B. 1533, 1542.


pleasure, A. 1, 1164, 1176; C. 99.

Pay, please, A. 1165, 1177.

Payment, A. 598.

Paynt, A. 750.

Payre, pair, B. 335.

Payre = appayre, become worse, fade, B. 1124. Lat. pejor, worse. “To appayre to waxe worse.” (Palsg.)

Payred, impaired, A. 246.

Pechche, sin, fault, A. 841. Fr. péché.


A. 477.

Peneȝ, pens, folds (for cattle), B. 322.

Penitotes, (? Peritotes), a kind of stone (the peritot or peridot Marsh), B. 1472.

Penne, B. 1724.

Penne-fed, B. 57.

Pensyf, pensive, A. 246.

Pented, appertained, belonged to, B. 1270.

Peraunter, peradventure, B. 43.


equal, peer, A. 4; B. 1214, 1336.

Pereȝ, pears, A. 104.

Perile, B. 856, 942.

Perré, precious stones, jewelry, A. 730; B. 1117.

Pertly = apertly, openly, B. 244. See T. B. 1130. Cf. “pert wordes,” T. B. 977.

Peryle, A. 695; C. 85.


Pes, peace, A. 952.

Pich, pitch, B. 1008.

Pike = pick, pluck, B. 1464.

Pinnacle, B. 1463.

Pité, pity, B. 232.


A. 370, 798.

Planed, B. 310.

Planete, A. 1075.

Plaster, B. 1549.

Plat, flat, B. 1379.

Plat, struck (pret. of plette, to strike), B. 1265. A.S. plættian.

“Hwan he hauede him so schamed,

His hand (he) of plat, and yvele lamed.”

(Havelok the Dane, 2755.)

Plater, plate, platter, B. 638.

Plateȝ, A. 1036.

Plat-ful, brimful, B. 83.

Plattyng, sb. striking (or folding?), B. 1542.

Play, A. 261.

Play-fere, play-fellow, companion, C. 45.

Playn, adj. even, clear, A. 178, 689; A. 1068; B. 439.

Playn, sb. A. 104, 122; B. 1216.

Playned, lamented, A. 53, 242.

Playneȝ, complains, C. 376.

Playnt, complaint, A. 815.

Plek, place, plot of ground, B. 1379. “Pleckke or plott, porculetum.” (Prompt. Parv.) N.Prov.E. pleck. A.S. plæc.

“Se that the hare hathe be at pasture in grene corne, or in eny other plek.”

(Quoted by Way from MS. Harl. 5086, fol. 47.)

Pleny, to complain, A. 549.

Plete, demand, plead for, A. 563.


Pleyn, mourn, C. 371.

Plontte, plant, A. 104.

Plow, plough, B. 68.

Plyande, pliant, C. 439.

Plye, A. 1039; B. 196, 1385.

Plyt, danger, fault, A. 647; A. 1494; B. 114. A.S. pliht.

Plyȝt, condition, A. 1075; B. 111.

Pobbel, pebble, A. 117.

Pole, pool, stream, A. 117.

Polle, poll, head, B. 1265. Du. polle, pol, head, top, crown.

Polmente, a kind of pottage, B. 628. O.Fr. polment. Lat. pulmentum. “Pulmentarium a pulment.” Nominale, MS.

“His brother (Jacob) he fand give—and his tent

To grayth a riche pulment.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 21a.)


polish, B. 1068, 1131, 1134.

Polyle, poultry, B. 57. Fr. poule, a hen; poulet, a chicken. Lat. pullus. “Polayle, bryddys or fowlys, Altilis.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Pomgarnade, pomegranate, B. 1466. Cf. Lat. malum granatum. It. granata. Sp. granada.

Poplande, rushing, foaming, C. 319. N.Prov.E. popple, to tumble about with a quick motion. O.Sc. pople, to flow, rush.

“The wawis of the wild see apone the wallis betes,

The pure populand hurle passis it umby.”

(K. Alex. p. 40.)

“And on the stanys owt thar harnys [he] dang,

Quhil brayn and eyn and blude al poplit owt.”

(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 167.)


Porchase, purchase, A. 439.

Porche, B. 785.

Pore, poor, A. 873.

Porfyl, hem, A. 216. Fr. pourfiler, to work upon the edge, embroider; fil, a thread. O.E. purfle, to overlay with gems or gold. “Purfyll or hemme of a gowne, bort.” (Palsg.)

Porpre, purple, B. 1568.

Porros, B. 1772.

Port, gate, A. 856; harbour, B. 90.

Portale, A. 1036.

Portray, B. 700.


to provide, A. 1502; B. 36.

Possyble, A. 452.

Potage, B. 638.

Poursent, course, A. 1035.

Pourtray, B. 1271. Fr. pourtraire.

Pouer, power, B. 1654.


poor, B. 615, 1074.

Poueren (pl. of pouer), poor, B. 127.

Pouert, poverty, C. 43.

Pouerté, C. 13.

Powdered, A. 44.

Powleȝ, pools, C. 310.

Poyned, trimmed, ornamented, A. 217.

Poynt, sb. particle, A. 891.

Poysened, B. 1095.

Poyntel, a style, B. 1533.

Pray, sb. prey, A. 1297; vb. to plunder, B. 1624.

Prayse, A. 301.

Prece, press, B. 880.

Prechande, preaching, B. 942.


A. 4, 216; B. 1282.


Prelate, A. 1249; B. 389.

Pres, press, A. 730; to press, A. 957.

Prese, praise, honour; “his prese, his prys,” A. 419. Sp. prez, honour, glory. Fr. prix, value, worth, price.

“Fra þan forth heild Sir Moyses

Þis wandes bath in pris and pres.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 36a.)


sb. press, A. 1114; vb. B. 1249.


presence, A. 389; B. 8, 1496.

Present, vb. B. 1217.

Presonere, prisoner, B. 1217.

Prest, ready, A. 147; B. 303. Ital. presto.

Prestly, quickly, B. 628.

Presyous, B. 1496.

Pretermynable, A. 596.

Preue, prove, A. 983; B. 704, 1748.

Prisoner, B. 1297.

Profecie, B. 1158, 1308.

Profere, A. 235, 1200.

Profert, B. 1463.

Professye, A. 821.

Profete, prophet, A. 797.

Proper, A. 686.

Propertéȝ, properties, A. 752.

Property, A. 446.

Prophete, A. 831; B. 1300.

Prosessyoun, procession, A. 1096.

Prouince, B. 1300.

Pruddest, proudest, B. 1300.

Prudly, proudly, B. 1379, 1466. See T. B. 857.

Pryce, chief, B. 1308.

Prymate, B. 1570.

Pryncipale, B. 1531, 1781.


Pryncipalté, dominion, B. 1672, 1738.


value, worth, A. 272, 419, 755; B. 1117. See Prese.

Prysoun, C. 79.

Pryuely, B. 238.

Pryuy, A. 12; pryuyest, B. 1748.

Pulde, pulled, B. 1265.

Pulle, draw, B. 68.

Pure, adj. A. 227; A. 704; vb. B. 1116.


A. 1004; B. 1660.

Purpre, purple, A. 1016.

Pursaunt, a sergeant, B. 1385. O.Fr. pursuivant.

Pursue, B. 1177.

Purtraye, B. 1465, 1536.

Puryté, B. 1074.

Pyche, pitch, fix, B. 477.

Pye, B. 1465.

Pyked, adorned, A. 1036.

Pykeȝ, pick, choose, A. 573.

Pyle, building, A. 686.

Pyle, to rob, B. 1270, 1282. Fr. piller, to rob.

Pylere, pillar, B. 1271.

Pyne, vb. to torment, A. 1095; sb. pain, B. 330. Du. pijnen, to torture.

Pyne = pynd, fasten, C. 79. A.S. pyndan, to shut in.

Pynkardine, ? perre carnadine, carnelian stone (Marsh), B. 1472.

Pyony, A. 44.

Pytosly, pitifully, A. 370.

Pyty, A. 1206.

Pyȝt, fixed, placed (pret. of pyche), A. 117, 228, 742; B. 785.



Quat, what, A. 293.

Quat-kyn, what kind of, A. 771.

Quauende, flowing, waving, B. 324.

Quayle, sb. quail, A. 1085.

Quayntyse, wisdom, craft, B. 1632. O.Fr. accointer, to make known; coint, informed, acquainted with. Lat. cognitus.

Qued, sb. evil, crime, ill, A. 567; B. 4. Du. kwaad, bad. Pl. D. quat.

Quelle, kill, A. 799; A. 324; subdue, B. 4. A.S. cwellan.

Queme, adj. pleasing, A. 1179. A.S. cweman, to please. Your qweme spouse, T. B. 634.

Quen, when, A. 40, 93, 232, 804.

Quenche, C. 4.

Quere, where, A. 65.

Query, A. 803.

Quest, C. 39.

Queþer-so-euer, whether-so-ever, A. 606.

Quikken, C. 471.

Quo, who, A. 747.

Quo-so, who-so, A. 1647; B. 5.

Quos, whose, B. 1648.

Quoynt, wise, A. 889; A. 160, 871; curious, B. 1459. See Quayntyse.

Quoyntis, clothing, B. 54. “Quoyntyse, yn gay floryschynge, or other lyke. Virilia.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Quoyntyse, device, C. 39. See Quayntyse.


quick, living (pl. quykeȝ, A. 1179; A. 567), B. 324.

Quyl, while, B. 627.


Quyte, requite, reward, A. 595; B. 1632.

Quyte, white, A. 220, 842, 844.


Raas = rase, rese, way, course, A. 1167. A.S. ræs, way, course, race. Sw. resa.

Rac, storm, vapour, B. 433. N.Prov.E. rack, driving clouds, clouds driven along by the wind.

“A rak and a royde wynde rose in her saile.”

(T. B. 1984)

Rachche, proceed, go, B. 619. A.S. ræcan, to reach, extend. O.H.G. rechen. N.Prov.E. ratch, stretch. Perhaps rachche is a softened form of rayke (Icel. reika, to go), to go. S.Sax. ruchen.

Rad, frightened, B. 1543. Sw. raedd, afraid. N.Prov.E. rade.

“In a rad haste.”

(T. B. 917.)

“Vn-to the gryselyche gost Syr Gauane is gone,

And rayket to hit in a res, for he was neuyr radde;

Rad was he neuyr ȝette, quoso ryȝte redus.”

(The Anturs of Arther, p. 5; ix. 8, 9.)

Radde, advised, C. 406 (pret. of rede, to advise). See Rede.

Radly, readily, quickly. A.S. rád, ready, quick; rádlice, speedily.

“The sight of þat semely sanke in hir herte,

And rauysshed hir radly þe rest of hir sawle.”

(T. B. 462)

Raft, bereft, took, (pret. of reve), A. 1142, 1431; taken, B. 1739. See Reue.

Rak, C. 176. See Rac.


Rakel, hasty, rash, C. 526. N.Prov.E. rackle.

Rakente, chain (?), C. 188. A.S. raccenta.

Rakke, C. 139. See Rac.

Ramelande, fetid, filthy, C. 279. Prov.E. ram, fetid; rammely, tall, rank; ramel, rubbish, dirt.

Randeȝ, paths, borders, A. 105. A.S. rand, rond, a border, rim, edge.

Rank, strong, severe, B. 233. Fris. rank, long-grown, rank. Dan. rank, upright. See T. B. 1392, 1879.

Ranker, rancour, B. 756.

Rape, blow, B. 233. Sw. rapp.

Rapely, quickly, A. 363, 1168. O.E. rape, haste. O.N. rápa, cursitare. In T. B. rape = to hasten (818).

Rasch, A. 1167.

Rasp, B. 1545, 1724.

Rasse, summit, top, B. 446. N.Prov.E. raise, a mound, cairn. O.N. reysa.

Ratted, rent, ragged, B. 144; from O.E. ratte, to tear, rend. N.Prov.E. rats, pieces, fragments. Fris. rite, tear, pull.

“Thane the Romayns relevyde that are ware rebuykkyde,

And alle to-rattys oure mene with theire risté horsses.”

(Morte Arthure, E. E. T. S. 2235.)


= ruth, pity, sorrow, A. 858; A. 233, 972; mercy, B. 21.

Raue, A. 363, 665.

Rauen, B. 455.

Rauyste, ravished, A. 1088.


Rawe, row, “vpon a rawe,” in a row, in order, A. 545.

Raweȝ, rows, borders, A. 105.

Raw-sylk, B. 790.

Raxled, roused up, A. 1174. A.S. ræscian, to shake, rustle. O.N. ruska. Sc. rax, to stretch.

Ray, A. 160.

Raykande, going, flowing, A. 112; B. 382.

Rayke, go, A. 465, 671; B. 89. O.N. reka. N.Prov.E. rake, to go about.

Raynande, raining, B. 382.

Rayn-ryfte, rain-fissure, B. 368.

Raysoun, reason, cause, A. 268; C. 191.


afforded, extended (pret. of rache), B. 561, 766, 1691. See Rachche.

Reame, realm, B. 1316.

Rebaude, ribald, B. 873. Fr. ribald, from O.H.G. hrúpa, a prostitute. (Burguy.)

Rebel, B. 455.

Rebounde, B. 422.

Rebuke, A. 367.

Recen, tell, A. 827. A.S. recan.

Reche, reach, extend, B. 10, 1369.


reck, care, A. 333; B. 465. A.S. récan.

Reche = reke, smoke, B. 1009. A.S. reác.

Recorde, sb. A. 831; vb. B. 25.

Recoverer, recovery, B. 394.

Rede, vb. to counsel, advise, A. 1346; explain, B. 1578. A.S. rædan.


without counsel, uncertain, fearful, A. 1197; B. 502.


Refete, feed, refresh, A. 88; C. 20.

Reflayr, smell, A. 46; odour, B. 1079. Fr. flairer, to smell. Prov. Fr. flairar, to smell, sniff.

Refrayne, B. 756.

Reget, A. 1064.

Regretted, A. 243.

Regioun, A. 1178; B. 760, 964.

Rehayte, cheer, B. 127. O.Fr. rehaiter.

Reiatéȝ, kingdoms, royalties, A. 769. O.Fr. reiauté = reialté, royalty.

Reken, beautiful, A. 5, 906; joyous, A. 92; merry, A. 1082; pious, A. 10, 738; wise, B. 756. See Wright’s Lyrical Poems, p. 27. A.S. recan. O.S. recon, to order, direct. Pl. D. reken, right, straight, orderly.

Rekenly, nobly, princely, B. 127, 1318.

Rekken up, A. 2.

Relande, reeling, C. 270.

Rele, reel, roll, C. 147.


cessation, A. 956; B. 760.

Releue, C. 323.

Relusaunt, shining, A. 159. O.Fr. reluire, to shine.

Relygioun, B. 7, 1156.

Relyke, B. 1156, 1269.

Reme, realm, A. 448, 735.

Reme, lament, cry, A. 858, 1181; C. 502. A.S. hreman.

Remembre, C. 326.

Remnaunt, remainder, A. 1160; B. 433.

Remorde, grieved, A. 364.


remove, A. 427, 899; B. 646, 1673.


Renay, reject, forsake, A. 105; B. 344.


reign, B. 328, 1321.

Rengneȝ, courses, B. 527. A.S. ryne, course.

Renischche, foreign, strange, B. 96. See Runische.


a man, originally a warrior, B. 7, 96, 766, 969. A.S. rinc. O.N. reckr.

Renne, run, B. 527, 1392.

Renoun, A. 986, 1182.

Renowleȝ, renews, A. 1080.

Renyschly, fiercely, B. 1724. See Runische.

Reparde, kept back, A. 611.

Repayre, vb. A. 1028.

Repente, A. 662.

Repreue, reprove, A. 544.

Requeste, A. 281.

Rere, rise, A. 366, 423; A. 188; raise, C. 873; proceed, B. 160.

Rert, if not rered, raised = ert, powerful, A. 591. Cf. ertid. T. B. 2641, 4841.

Res, onset, assault, B. 1782. See Raas.

Reset, resting place, seat, abode, A. 1067.


A. 523; B. 724.

Resoun, A. 665, 716; B. 1633.

Respecte, “in respecte of,” A. 84.

Respyt, A. 644.

Resse, “on resse,” in course, A. 874. See Raas.

Restay, keep back, restrain, A. 716, 1168.

Restleȝ = restless, unceasing, B. 527.


Restore, A. 659; B. 1705.

Retrete, treat of, A. 92.

Reue, bereave, C. 487. A.S. refian, reafian. O.Fris. râva.

Reuel, B. 1369.

Reuer, river, A. 105.


B. 10, 1318.

Rewarde, A. 604.

Rewfully, sorrowfully, A. 1181.

Rewled, ruled, ordered, B. 294.

Reynyeȝ, reins, B. 592.

Reȝtful, rightful, B. 724.

Rial, royal, B. 1082.

Rialté, royalty, B. 1321.

Ridlande, dropping (as out of a sieve), oozing, B. 953. A.S. hriddel, a sieve; hridrian, to sift.

Riboudrye, ribaldry, B. 184.

Rigge, back, C. 379. A.S. hrycg.

Rifteȝ, pieces, fragments, B. 964.

Ring = rink, man, B. 592. See Renk.

Robbor, B. 1269.

Roborrye, B. 184.

Roche, rock, B. 537.

Rode, cross, A. 705; C. 96.

Rok, crowd, throng, B. 1514. Sc. rok. O.Sw. rok, cumulus.

Rollande, curly, waving, B. 790.

Rome = roam, go, C. 52.

Romy, roar, howl, B. 1543. A.S. reomian, to cry out. O.E. rome. Sc. rame. Sw. raama.

Ronk = rank, fine, A. 844; bold, A. 1167; A. 490; bad, A. 455, 760; full grown, C. 869; sb. boldness, B. 298.

Ronkly, fiercely, C. 431.

Rop, rope, C. 150.


Rop, gut, intestine, C. 270. N.Prov.E. ropps, the guts. A.S. roppas, the bowels, entrails, the raps. Cf. A.S. rop-weorc, the colic.

“Huervore he (the liar) is ase the gamelos (chameleon), thet leveth by the eyr, and naȝt ne heth ine his roppes bote wynd, and heth ech manere colour, thet ne heth non (of) his oȝen.”

(The Ayenbite of Inwyt, E. E. T. S. p. 62.)

Rore, roar, cry, B. 390, 1543.

Rose, praise, B. 1371. Sc. ruse. Sw. rosa. Dan. rose, to praise.


root, A. 26.

Rote, sb. rot, decay, B. 1079.

Rote, lyre of seven strings, B. 1082. O.H.G. hrotta. M.H.G. rotte. W. crwth. Eng. crowd.

Roþeled, prepared, A. 59; rushed, hastened, B. 890. A.S. hrathian, to be quick. Or from Welsh rhuthr, a sudden gust, onset, assault. Lanc. rhute, passion. Sc. ruther, uproar.

Roþer, rudder, B. 419.

Roþun, rush, B. 1009. See Roþeled.

Roum, room, B. 96.

Roun = rune, discourse, C. 514. A.S. rún, a letter, character, mystery, council, conversation.

Rourde, sound, A. 112. A.S. reord, reard, speech, language.

Route, snore, C. 186. Fr. router. O.N. rauta, to roar, bellow.

“Dormiendo sonare, Anglice to rowtyn.”

(MS. Bibl. Reg. 12 B. i. f. 88.)

Rownande, murmuring, A. 112.


Rowned, sounded, C. 64. A.S. rúnian, to whisper.

Rowtande, rushing, B. 354. “A routond rayn,” T. B. 1986.

Rowte, company, band, host, B. 969, 1197, 1782.

Rowwe, row, C. 216.

Royl, royal, B. 790.


rough, A. 382, 1724; A. 139, 147; roughness, C. 1545; B. 144.

Roȝly, roughly, B. 433. Is it an error for rwly, sorrowful?

Roȝt, cared for (pret. of reche), C. 460.

Ruchen, fettle, set in order, C. 101. M.H.G. rechen. O.S. recon. A.S. recan, to order, direct.

“(He) riches him radly to ride and remowis his ost.”

(K. Alex. p. 172.)

“[The king] Ricchis his reynys.”

(T. B. 1231.)

Ruddon, light, literally redness, B. 893. O.N. rodna, rubescere, erubescere; rodi, rubor, rubigo. Prov.E. roaded, rody, streaked.

Rudnyng, ? lightning, C. 139. See Ruddon.

Rueled, rushed, B. 953. O.N. hrolla. Dan. rulle.

Ruful, sorrowful, pitiful, A. 916.

Runnen (p.p. of rinne), run, A. 26, 874.

Runisch, strange, B. 1545. A.S. rénisc, hidden; from rún, a mystery.

Runyschly, fiercely, roughly, C. 191. Renisch or runisch, signifies not only strange but fierce, 186b rough. N.Prov.E. rennish, rinnish, furious.

“Than has sire Dary dedeyne and derfely he lokes;

Rysys him up renysche and reȝt in his sete.”

(K. Alex. p. 100.)

Rurd, cry, noise, A. 390; B. 64. A.S. reord.

Ruþe, arouse, B. 895, 1208. See Roþeled.

Ruyt, hasten, endeavour, C. 216. Fris. rite, to pull.

Rwe, to pity, C. 176, 502; vb. impers. rwe, repent, B. 290, 561. A.S. hreówan, to rue, repent, grieve; hreówian, to be sorry for.

Rwly = ruly, sorrowfully, piteously, A. 390; B. 96.

Ryal, royal, A. 160; B. 786.

Ryally, royally, A. 987; B. 812.

Rybaude, ribald, C. 96.

Rybe, ruby, A. 1007.

Ryche, kingdom, A. 601, 722. A.S. ríce.

Ryche, rich, A. 770.

Rydelande, drifting, C. 254. See Ridlande.

Rydelles, without counsel, uncertain, B. 969. See Redeles.

Ryf = rife, abundant, plentiful, A. 770, 844. A.S. ryf, frequent. O.N. rifr.

“Forþi he hight (promised) þam giftes riif,

Þat suld bring David of his liif;

In feild and tun, in frith and felle,

Saul soght David for to quelle.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 43a.)


rain, torrent, shower, B. 354, 382. O.N. hregg. A.S. racu. N.Prov.E. rag.


Ryngande, ringing, B. 1082.

Rynk, man, C. 216. See Renk.

Rypande, searching, trying, B. 592. O.E. rype, to probe, plunder. A.S. rypan; N.Prov.E. to investigate.

“Now if ye have suspowse to Gille or to me,

Com and rype oure howse, and then may ye se who had hir.”

(Town. Myst. p. 112.)

See State Papers, i. 295.

Rysed, rose, B. 1778.

Ryth, a hound, mastiff, B. 1543. A.S. riththa, a mastiff.

Ryȝt, right, A. 622.

Ryȝtwys, righteous, right, A. 675; C. 490.

Ryȝtwysly, aright, A. 709.



A. 510, 1447; B. 239.


sad, staid, solemn, A. 211, 887; A. 595; long, A. 1286; bitter, B. 525.

Sadele, saddle, B. 1213.

Sadly, soundly, heavily, C. 442.

Saf, safe, secure, A. 672.

Saf, save, except, B. 1749.


sapphire, A. 1002; B. 1469.

Sage, B. 1576.

Saghe = saw, word, A. 226. See Saw.

Sake, fault, A. 800; C. 84. A.S. sacu.

Sakerfyse, sacrifice, A. 1064; B. 507.

Sakleȝ = sakeless, innocent, faultless, B. 716. Sc. sackless. O.N. saklaus, innocent. See Sake.


Sakred, hallowed, B. 1139.

Sale, hall, palace, B. 120, 1260, 1722. A.S. sal. T. B. 1657.

Samen, adv. together, at once, A. 518; A. 400, 468; adj. B. 985. O.N. saman.

Samen, to consort with, B. 870. A.S. samnian, to assemble, collect.

Samne, assemble, B. 53.

Samned, assembled, B. 126, 361.

Samnes (imp. of samne), C. 385.

Sample, example, A. 499; B. 1326.

Sapyence, wisdom, B. 1626.

Sardiner, sardine stone, B. 1469.

Sardonyse, sardonyx, A. 1006.

Sarre (comp. of sare), sorer, more painful, A. 1195; superl. sarrest, B. 1078.

Sattle, settle, C. 409. N.Prov.E. sattle.


= saw, word, B. 1545.

Sauce, B. 823.

Saudan, sultan, B. 1323.


soul, A. 461; A. 290; B. 325.

Saundyuer, sandever, glass-gall, B. 1036.

Sauter, psalter, A. 677.

Sauteray, psaltery, B. 1516.

Saue, A. 666.

Sauer, vb. savour, B. 825.

Sauerly, savourly, sweet, A. 226.


A. 510, 995, 1447; B. 275.

Sauyté, safety, B. 489.


word, A. 278; B. 109. A.S. sagu.

Sayde = sadde, stedfast, B. 470.


Saym, fat, grease, C. 275. Prov.E. saim, seam, lard. W. saim.

Sayned, blessed, B. 746. A.S. senian. Ger. segnen, to bless.

“Swa sal I saine þe in lif mine,

Sic benedicam te in vita mea,

And sal lift mi handes in name thine,

Et in nomine tuo levabo manus meas.”

(Psalm lxii. 5.)

Saynt, A. 835.


word, B. 1599, 1737. See Saw.

Saȝ, saw, A. 1021.


reconciliation, A. 1201; adj. at peace, A. 52. A.S. saht, peace; saht, reconciled; sahtlian, to reconcile.

Saȝtled, appeased, reconciled, B. 230, 1139.

Saȝtled, settled, restored, A. 445; became calm, B. 232.

Saȝtlyng, reconciliation, peace, B. 490, 1795.

Saȝttel, to be calm, patient, C. 529.

Scale, A. 1005.

Scape, escape, A. 62, 529, 928; B. 155.

Scarre = scare, vb. be frightened, A. 598, 838; scatter, B. 1784. N.Prov.E. skair, wild, timid. S.Sax. skerren, to terrify.

Scaþe, harm, ruin, wrong, sin, B. 21, 196, 569, 600, 1148.

Scaþe, to break, destroy, B. 1776. A.S. scethan, to injure, hurt, harm. Sceththe, injury, loss, guilt.

Scaþel, dangerous, C. 155. Goth. skathuls. O.H.G. scadhal, hurtful. 188b

“Lokez the contree be clere the corners are large:

Discoveres now sekerly skrogges and other,

That no skathelle (hurtful thing) in the skroggez skorne us here-aftyre;

Loke ȝe skyfte it so that no skathe lympe.”

(Morte Arthure, pp. 137-8.)

Ascalphus, a skathel duke, T. B. 4067.

Scelt, spread, served (?), B. 827.

Schad, descended, B. 1690.

Schadowed, shaded, A. 42.

Schaftes, beams, rays, A. 982; C. 455. A.S. sceaft, dart, arrow.

“(He) had on a mitre

Was forged all of fyne gold, and fret fulle of perrils,

Stiȝt staffulle of stanes that straȝt out bemes

As it ware schemerand schaftis of the schire sonne.”

(K. Alex. p. 53.)


man, fellow, A. 762, 1029; B. 476. A.S. scealc, a warrior, serving man. Goth. skalks. O.S. scalc. O.N. skálkr.

Schape, devise, form, A. 247; endeavour, C. 762; happen, B. 160. A.S. scapan, to appoint, shape, create. O.N. skapa.

Schauen, shaven, scraped, B. 1134.

Schawe, show, B. 1599.


grove, thicket, wood, A. 284; C. 452. Prov.E. scow, shaw. O.N. skógr, Dan. skov, a wood.

Schede, depart, A. 411.

Scheldeȝ, shields (of a boar), B. 58.

Schende, ruin, destroy, B. 519. 189 A.S. scendan, to confound, shame, destroy.

Schended, accursed, C. 246.

Schene = sheen, sb. bright, beautiful, A. 166, 965; brightness, A. 440; adj. C. 203, 1145; B. 1076, 1310. A.S. sceone, beautiful; scine, splendour.


destroyed, A. 668; A. 1029; ruined, B. 47, 580.

Schep, sheep, A. 801.

Schepon, stall, stable, B. 1076. A.S. scypen.

Schere, divide, separate, A. 107; purify, A. 165. A.S. scéran, to divide.

Schet, shut, C. 452.

Schin, shall, B. 1435. See “Liber Cure Cocorum,” p. 29, l. 29.

“For in a slac thou shalle be slayn,

Seche ferlès schyn falle!”

(The Anturs of Arther, p. 12, xxiii. 13.)

Schome, shame, B. 1115.

Schomely, shamefully, C. 128.

Schonied, shunned, B. 1101.

Schor, shower, B. 227.

Schore, shore, A. 230.

Schorne (gold), purified, refined, A. 213. See Schere.

Schortly, quickly, hastily, B. 519, 600.

Schowte, shout, A. 877.

Schowue, shove, B. 44, 1029, 1740.

Schrewe, a wicked person, a wretch, A. 186; B. 77.

Schrewedschyp, wickedness, B. 580.

Schrowde, clothing, B. 47, 170. A.S. scrúd, garment, shroud.


Schrylle = shrill, clear, A. 80.

Schulder, shoulder, B. 981, 1690.

Schunt = aside, aslant, B. 605. O.E. shunt, to slip aside, withdraw. A.S. scunian, to shun. Du. schuins, slope, slant.

“He schodirde and schrenkys and shontes bott lyttille.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 354.)

“ȝa werpes tham up (the ȝates) quoth

the wee, and wide open settes,

If at ȝe schap ȝow to schount unschent

of oure handes.”

(K. Alex. p. 73.)

Schylde, to shield, A. 965; C. 440.

Schyldere, shoulder, A. 214.

Schym, bright, A. 1077. A.S. scima, a brightness. M.H.G. schîm. A.S. sciman, to glitter, shine. See T. B. 4974.

Schymeryng, sb. brightness, A. 80. A.S. scimrian, to shine. Du. schémeren, to dazzle. Sw. skimra, to glitter.

Schyn, shall, B. 1810. See Schin.

Schynde, shone, A. 80.


brightly, A. 28; bright, beautiful, A. 42, 284; A. 553, 605, 1278; bare, A. 1690. Comp. schyrrer, B. 982. A.S. scír, sheer, pure, clear, bright. See T. B. 1269.

Sclade = slade, valley, green plain, A. 1148. A.S. slæd.

Sclaȝt, slaughter, B. 56.

Scoghe, scoff, or perhaps perverseness, backsliding, A. 610. A.S. sceoh, askew, perverse.

Scole, cup, B. 1145. O.N. skál. Dan. skaal.

Scolere, scholar, B. 1554.

Scomfyt, to discomfit, B. 1784.


Scope, scoop, C. 155.


vb. A. 709; sb. B. 827.

Scoumfit, discomfited, B. 151.

Scowte-wach, sentinel, guard, B. 838.

“Thane the price mene prekes and proves theire horsez,

Satilles to the cete appone sere halfes;

Enserches the subbarbes sadly thare-aftyre,

And skyrmys a lyttille;

Skayres thaire skottefers

And theire skowtte-waches.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 206.)

Scoymous, particular, scrupulous, fearful, B. 21, 1148.

Scrof, rough, B. 1546.

Scrypture, writing, B. 1546.

Scue. See Skewe.

Scylle, wit, B. 151. It signifies also reason, cause. O.N. skil.

Scylful, wise, B. 1148.


seek, A. 354; B. 29, 420.

Seele, joy, happiness, C. 242. A.S. sél, good, excellent. Cf. unsell, T. B. 1961.

Sege, seat, C. 93. Fr. siége.

Sege, siege, B. 1185.


a man, servant, B. 93, 398, 549, 681. A.S. secg, a man, literally a messenger, speaker; from secgan, to say.

Segge, say, B. 621.

Segh, saw, A. 790.

Sekke, sack, C. 382.

Selconth, a marvel, B. 1274. A.S. sel-cúth = seld-cúth, rare, seldom known.

Selden, seldom, A. 380. A.S. seldan.


Sele, happiness, bliss, C. 5. See Seele.

Selepe = slep, slept, C. 186.

Self, very, A. 1046; same, B. 1769.

Selly, a marvel, A. 140; wonderfully, C. 353. A.S. séllíc, síllíc, worthy, wonderful; séllíce, wonderfully.

“For thou has samned, as men sais, a selly noimbre

Of wrichis and wirlinges out of the west endis,

Of laddis and of losengers and of litille thevys.”

(K. Alex. p. 59.)

See T. B. 1544.

Sely, fortunate, blessed, happy, A. 659; B. 490. See Seele.

Sem, seam, B. 555.

Semblaunt, appearance, cheer, A. 211, 1143; B. 131, 640.

Semblé, assembly, B. 126.

Sembled, assembled, C. 177.

Seme, seemly, A. 190; B. 549, 1810. O.Sw. sæma. Dan. sömme, to be fitting, bear one’s self becomingly. O.N. sæmr, seemly.

Seme, to be fitting, become, B. 793.

Semed, A. 760.


seemly, beautiful, A. 34, 789; A. 209, 1442. Comp. sem-loker, B. 868.

Sengeley, ever, constantly, A. 8. A.S. singallíce, perpetually.


diverse, various, separate, A. 358; ser kynde, A. 507; sere course, A. 1418; ser wyse, B. 12.


Serelych, severally, separately, C. 193.

Sergaunt, a royal servant, a squire, B. 109.

Serges, wax tapers, B. 1489. Lat. cerea.

Seriaunte, sergeant, C. 385. See Sergaunt.

Serkyndeȝ, diverse kinds, B. 336.

Serlypeȝ, diverse, different, separate, A. 994.

Sermoun, discourse, speech, A. 1185.

Sertain, certainly, A. 685.

Seruage, bondage, B. 1257.

Seruaunt, A. 699; B. 631.

Serue, avail, A. 331.

Serue, deserve, A. 553; B. 1115.

Seruyse, B. 1152, 1401.

Sese, cease, A. 523; seseȝ, let cease, B. 391.

Sesoune, season, B. 523.


took possession of, A. 417; B. 1313.


sat, A. 161; A. 1171. pl. seten, B. 1763.

Sete, seat, C. 24.

Seþe = seethe, boil, B. 631.


= sewe, sew, a kind of pottage, B. 108, 825.

Sewer, the officer who set and removed the dishes, tasted them, etc., B. 639.

Sewrté, surety, C. 58.

Sexte, sixth, A. 1007.

Seyed, passed, B. 353.

Seyet furth with sory chere.”

(T. B. 2512.)

Seysoun, season, A. 39.

Seȝ, saw, A. 158, 531, 698; B. 209.


Side-borde, B. 1398.

Siue, sieve, B. 226.

Skarmoch, fight, skirmish, B. 1186.

Skaþe, harm, danger, sin, B. 151, 598, 1186. See Scaþe.

Skele, dish, B. 1405.

Skelt, scattered, spread, B. 1186, 1206. O.E. skale, to scatter. N.Prov.E. scale, to spread. See Hall, Richard III. f. 15. A.S. scylan, to separate, divide; pret. scel.

“Skairen out skoute wacche for skeltyng of harme.”

(T. B. 1089, 6042.)

Skelt, hasten, run, B. 1554. Sw. skala, to scamper, scour.

Skete, quick, sudden, A. 1186; quickly, B. 195. See T. B. 13672. O.N. skjótt.

Skewe, sky, cloud, B. 1206, 1759. Sw. sky, a cloud. A.S. scúa, a shadow.

Skowte, look, search, B. 483. See T. B. 1089.

Skoymous, B. 598. See Scoymous.

Skwe, sky, B. 483.

Skyfte, devise, order, ordain, A. 569. A.S. scyftan.

Skyfte, shift, change, B. 709. Sw. skifta.

Skyg, scrupulous, careful, B. 21. Sw. skygg, shy. N.Prov.E. sky, to shun.


reason, wit, A. 312; by skylle, rightly, reasonably, A. 674; ordinance, A. 709; meaning, B. 1554. See Scylle.

Skylleȝ, doubts, A. 54.

Skylly, device, purpose, B. 529.


Skyly, excuse, B. 62.

Skyre = shire = sheer, clear, B. 1776. See Schyre.

Skyrme, screams (?), B. 483.

“Scho gaffe skirmande skrikes at all the skowis range.”

(K. Alex. p. 176.)

Or does it here signify to look about, like Prov.E. skime? O.N. Skima, to look about.

Skyualde, ordained, manifested, B. 529. Prof. Child suggests Somerset, scaffle, scramble, scuffle. See Skyfte.

Slade, valley, A. 141.

Slake, absolve (lit. to loosen), A. 942. A.S. sleacian, to slacken.

Slauþe, sloth, B. 178.

Slaȝt, slaughter, A. 801.

Slaȝte, stroke, A. 59; C. 192. A.S. slagan, to strike, beat, kill.

Sleke, assuage, lessen, B. 708. See Slake.

Slente = slant, a slope, declivity, A. 141. Sw. slinta, to slip.

Slep, slept, C. 466.

Sloberande, slobbering, drivelling, C. 186. Slobber is evidently formed from slob, slab, in the same way as blubber is formed from blob, blab, a drop. Cf. “Slobur or blobur, of fysshe and other like Burbulum.” (Prompt. Parv.) O.E. slab. Prov.E. slob, thick, slimy. Ir. slaib, mud, ooze. O.N. sluppra. Dan. slubbre, to sip, sup. Du. slubberen, to hang loose and slack.

Slode, slid, A. 59.

Sloghe, slow, C. 466.

Sloue, slew, B. 1264.


Sloumbe, slumber, C. 186, 466. N.Prov.E. sloomy, dronish, slow; sloum, sloom, slumber. O.E. slome, sleme, to sleep. A.S. sluma, a slumber. O.N. slæmi. Cf. the modern phrase, “to slumber and sleep.”

“(Sire Telomew) cairys into a cabayne, quare the kyng ligges,

Fand him slomande and on slepe, and sleely him rayses.”

(K. Alex. p. 176.)

Slow, slew, B. 1221.

Sluchched, muddy, dirty, C. 341. Prov.E. slutch, mud; slotch, a sloven; slotching, slovenly.

Slyde, fall, C. 466.

“And slydyn uppon slepe by slomeryng of age.”

(T. B. 6.)

Slyke, slide, slip. O.N. slikja, to make smooth. See Atslyke.

Slyp, stroke, blow, B. 1264.

Slyppe, go, glide, make off, slip away, A. 985; fall, B. 186. A.S. slipan.

Slyppe, escape, B. 1785. Sw. slippa, to escape.

Slyȝt, slight, A. 190.

Slyȝt, wisdom, A. 1289; device, B. 130. O.E. sleghe, sleȝe, wise. O.N. slægr.

Smach, scent, smell, B. 461, 1019. A.S. smæc. Prov.E. smatch, flavour.

Smachande, smelling, savouring, B. 955.

Smartly, quickly, B. 711.

Smod, stain, filth, B. 711. Sc. smot, smad. O.Sw. smuts, spot, stain. Dan. smuds, dirty. Pl. D. smuddern, to dirty.


Smolderande, smouldering, smothering, B. 955.

Smolt, be at peace, quiet, B. 732. A.S. smolt, serene, clear. Prov.E. molt-water, clear exudation; smolt, smooth, clear. See Smelt, T. B. 1669.

Smoltes; so in MS., but ? an error for smolte = smelt, B. 461.

“A smoke smulte through his nase.”

(T. B. 911.)

Smoþe, smooth, A. 6.

Smoþely, quietly, B. 732.

Smylt, decayed (?), B. 226. Sw. multna, to moulder. Dan. smuldre, to crumble, moulder.

Snaw, snow, B. 222.

Soberly, quietly, A. 256; courteously, decently, B. 117, 799, 1497. See T. B. 248.

Sobre, gentle, A. 532.

Sodanly, suddenly, A. 1098; B. 1769.

Soerly, an error for Soberly, B. 117.

Soffer, suffer, A. 940.

Soffraunce, forbearance, C. 417.

Soghe, sow, C. 67.

Soghe, moan, C. 391. A.S. swógan, swégan, to make a noise, howl. O.S. suôgan.

Sok, sb. suck, C. 391.

Sokored, succoured, C. 261.

Solace, A. 130; B. 870, 1080.

Solased, B. 131.


A. 1171, 1447; B. 239.

Solempnely, B. 37.


B. 1313, 1678, 1757.


throne, B. 1171, 1678. A.S. sylla, a chair; salo, a hall, palace.

Somere, B. 1686.


vb. A. 1498; sb. summons, B. 1098.

Sonde, sand, C. 341.

Sonde = sande, message, word, A. 943; messenger, B. 53, 781. A.S. sánd.

Sondeȝ-mon, messenger, B. 469.

Sone, soon, B. 461.


B. 1415, 1516.

Songen, pl. sang, B. 1763.

Sope, sup, B. 108.

Soper, supper, B. 107, 829, 997, 1763.


sorrow, A. 130; A. 242, 507; adv. sorely, C. 550; B. 290.

Sorewe, sorrow, B. 778.

Sorquydryȝe = surquedrie, presumption, arrogance, conceit, A. 309.

Sorsers, sorcerers, B. 1579.

Sorsory, sorcery, B. 1576.

Sorte, lot, C. 193.


sorrow, A. 352; B. 75, 563, 1080.


true, truth, A. 482, 653; A. 515; soþes, truths, B. 1598. A.S. sóth.

Soþefast, faithful, B. 1491.

Sothfol, truthful, A. 498.


truly, B. 299, 654, 657.

Sotte, fool, sot, A. 581; B. 501. A.S. sot. See T. B. 1961.

Sotyle, subtle, A. 1050.

Soufre, sulphur, B. 954.


Soumme, company, C. 509.

Soun, sound, word, A. 532; C. 429; to sound, B. 973, 1670.

Sounande, sounding, A. 883.

Souped, supped, B. 833.

Sour, bad, vile, B. 192. Cf. “Soory or defowlyd yn sowr or filth. Cenosus.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Souȝed, sobbed, sighed, C. 140. See T. B. 342. Prov.E. sugh, sow, suff, to murmur. O.Sc. swouch, a noise, sound. A.S. swoeg, a noise; swógan, to sound, howl. Du. zwoegen, to pant, puff.

Souerayn, B. 93, 552.

Soyle, soil, earth, A. 1039, 1387; B. 443.

Soȝt, sought, A. 518, 730; soȝt to, reached, A. 510, 563; made for, C. 249; endeavoured, B. 1286.

Spak, quickly, A. 104; spakest, boldest, C. 169.

Spakk, spake, A. 938.

Spakly, certainly, surely, quickly, A. 755; B. 338.

Spare, spar, C. 104, 338. Sw. sparre. O.H.G. sparro.

Sparred, spurred, rushed, A. 1169.

Spec, speck, B. 551.


A. 235, 938; B. 1492.

Sped, help, B. 1607.

Spede, prosper, A. 511; hasten, B. 551.

Spedly, quickly, B. 1729.

Sped-whyle, a short space of time, a moment, B. 1285.

Speke, spoke, B. 1220.


Spelle, tell, relate, A. 793.

Spelle, speech, A. 363. A.S. spell.

Spenned, folded, A. 49. O.N. spenna. A.S. spannan.

Spenned, allured, enticed away, A. 53. A.S. spanan. N.Prov.E. span, to wean from.

Spiritually, B. 1492.

Spitous, fell, abominable, B. 845.

Spitously, fiercely, angrily, B. 1220.

Sponne = spun, grew, A. 35.

Spornande, rushing, dashing, A. 363. O.E. sporn, spurn, to dash. A.S. spurnan.

“Now aithir stoure on ther stedis,

Spurnes out spakly with speris in hand.”

(K. Alex. p. 27.)

Spot, blemish, A. 12, 764.

Spote, place, spot, A. 13; B. 551.

Spotleȝ, spotless, pure, A. 856.

Spotty, to defile, A. 1070.

Spoyle, B. 1285, 1774.


spread (pret. of sprede), A. 1607; B. 365.

Sprange, sprung, A. 13.

Sprawlyng, B. 408.

Sprete = sprit (as in bow-sprit), C. 104. A.S. sprit.

Sprude = spread, fasten, C. 104.

Spryngande, springing, A. 35.

Spuniande = spinnande, sticky, cleaving, B. 1038. Pynnand occurs in this sense in the Northern Romance of Alexander, p. 142.

“Than vmbyclappis thaim a cloude and covirs all ovir,

As any pynnand pik (pitch) the planets it hidis.”


Spure = spere, ask, inquire of, B. 1606. Sc. speer. A.S. spirian. See T. B. 823.

Sputen = spouted, uttered, B. 845.

Sput = spat, vomited, C. 338.


A. 235, 938; pl. spyseȝ, A. 25, 35.

Spye, B. 780, 1774.

Spylt, destroyed, B. 1220.

Spyrakle, breath, spirit, B. 408.

Spysereȝ, spice-mongers, B. 1038.

Spyt, cruelty, A. 1138; vengeance, B. 755.

Spytously, B. 1285. See Spitously.

Stable, adj. A. 597; vb. B. 1334, 1652.

Stac (pret. of steke), closed, fastened, B. 439. See Steke.


placed, fixed (pret. of stede), B. 806, 983, 1506.

Stage, state, A. 410.

Stal, seat, B. 1506. A.S. stal, steal.

Stale, step, degree, place, A. 1002.

Stalke, A. 152.

Stalle, place, fix, B. 1334. A.S. stælan.

Stalle, vb. bring, place, A. 188; B. 1184.

“Lia he (Jacob) stalle until his bedd.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 22b.)

Stalworth, strong, A. 884; great, B. 983.

Stalworþest, bravest, B. 255.

Stamyn, threshold, B. 486.

Stanc, pool, B. 1018. N.Prov.E. stank. Gael. stang, a pool.

Stagnum, a pounde, a stanke, a dam.”

(MS. Harl. 2270, f. 181.)

Standen (p.p.), stood, A. 519, 1148.


Stange, pool, B. 439. See Stanc.

Stape-fole, high, C. 122.

Stare, vb. A. 149; B. 389.

Stare, star, B. 583.

Stared, shone, B. 1506.

Staren (3rd pers. pl. pres.), shine, A. 116. “Staring stone,” T. B. 3037. Cf. “Staryng, or schynyng as gaye thyngys. Rutilans.” “Staryñ or schynyñ and glyderyñ, niteo.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“Many starand stanes strikes of thair helmes.”

(K. Alex. p. 28.)

“As ai stremande sternes stared alle thaire wedes.”

(Ibid., p. 129.)

Start, A. 1159.

Statue, B. 995.


= stow, place, B. 352, 360, 480.

Stayre, shine, B. 1396. See Staren.

Stayre, ladder, C. 513.

Stayre, steep, high, A. 1022. A.S. stígan, to ascend; stæger, a stair. O.E. staire, to ascend.

“A hundreth daies and a halfe he held be tha playnes,

Till he was comen till a cliffe, at to the cloudis semed,

That was so staire and so stepe, the storé me tellis,

Miȝt ther no wee, bot with wynges, winne to the topp.”

(K. Alex. p. 164, l. 4828.)

“With that stairis he forth the stye that streȝt to the est.”

(Ibid., 4834.)

Steke, fasten, shut up, close, B. 157, 352, 754, 884. N.Prov.E. steek. A.S. stician, to stick in. O.N. steckr, a fold.


Stel, stole, B. 1203.

Stele, approach stealthily, B. 1778. A.S. stélan.

Stele, a step (of a ladder), C. 513. See Stale.

“This ilke laddre (that may to hevene leste) is charite,

The stales gode theawis.”

(Poems of Wm. of Shoreham, p. 3.)

Stemme = stem, to stop, delay, B. 905. The same root occurs in stammer, stumble, etc. Sw. stämma, to dam.

Stepe, step, B. 905.


bright, B. 583, 1396. S.Sax. steap, bright, brilliant. “Stepe ene.” T. B. 3101. Cf. “eyen stepe.” Chaucer. C. T. Prologue, l. 201.

Stere, direct, A. 623; rule, C. 27.

Sterne, star, A. 115; C. 207. O.N. stjarna.

Sterne (of a boat), C. 149.

Sterre, star, B. 1378.

Stewarde, B. 90.

Steuen, voice, A. 188; sound, A. 1125; A. 1203, 1402; noise, A. 1778; command, B. 360, 463. A.S. stefen.

Stiffe, B. 983.

Stifly, firmly, B. 157.

Stik, fix, fasten, B. 157. See Steke.

Stille, dumb, B. 1523.

Stoffe, fill, B. 1184. See T. B. 2748.

Stoken, fastened, enclosed, shut (p.p. of steke), A. 1065; B. 360, 1199, 1524.

“Sothe stories ben stoken up & straught out of mind.”

(T. B. 11.)


stocks, B. 46, 157.

Stonde, stand, B. 1490.

Stonde, blow, B. 1540. A.S. stunian, to beat, strike. O.E. stund, to strike.

“Quat! wyns (wenis) þou I am a hund,

Wit þi stans me for to stund.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 42b.)

Stonen, adj. of stone, B. 995.

Ston-harde, fast, B. 884.

Store, a great (number), A. 847.

“A store man of strength and of stuerne will.”

(T. B. 538.)

Stote, stand, stop still, A. 149. Dan. stötte, stay, support. S.Sax. stuten, to stop. Sc. stoit, stumble. “Stotyng, Titubatus.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“Anone to the forest they found (go),

There they stoted a stound.”

(Sir Degrevant, 225.)

“Ffurth he stalkis a stye, by tha stille euys,

Stotays at a hey strette, studyande hym one.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 290.)

“Than he stotays for made, and alle his strenghe faylez.”

(Ibid., p. 357.)

Stound, Stounde, a space of time, moment, A. 659; A. 1716; in stoundes, at times, B. 1603. A.S. stund.

Stounde, blow, and hence sorrow, A. 20. See Stonde.

Stour, conflict; bale-stour, death pang, C. 426. Cf. dede-stoure, death conflict. Hampole’s Pricke of Conscience, 1820, 5812. O.N. styr. 197

“Son efter-ward, it was not lang,

Gain Saul þai gaf batail strang;

Þaa sarȝins þan þe king umsett,

In hard stur þai samen mett;

Ful snaip it was þair, stur and snelle,

The folk al fled of Israel.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 43b.)

Stout, firm, stable, A. 779, 935; brave, B. 1184.

Stowed, placed, B. 113.

Stowned, troubled, astonished, C. 73. A.S. stunian.

Strake, struck up, sounded, B. 1402.

Strate, street, A. 1043.

Straunge, strange, B. 409.

Stray, A. 1173; B. 1199. See T. B. 6258.

Strayne, strain, A. 128; labour, A. 691; pain, A. 1540; trouble, B. 234.

Strayt, B. 880, 1199.


stretch, A. 843, 971; B. 905.

Stremande, shining, A. 115. See extract under the word Staren.

Strenkle, scatter, B. 307.

Strenþe, strength, B. 1155, 1430.

Streny, strain, toil, labour, A. 551.

Streȝt, strait, A. 691; C. 234. Cf. streght, T. B. 351.

Stronde = strand, stream, river, A. 152; C. 254, 311.

“Midward þat land a wel springes,

Þat rennes out wit four strandes,

Fflummes farand in fer landes.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 7b.)

“Quen thai war passed over strand,

And raght apon þe toiþer land,

Witte yee þat þai war ful gladd.”

(Ibid., fol. 46a.)


Strot = strut, contest, chiding, A. 353, 848.

“O pride bicums unbuxumnes,

Strif and strutt and frawardnes.”

(The Seven Deadly Sins, in Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii.)

Stroþe, bold, fierce (?), A. 115.

Strye, destroy, A. 307, 1768; stryed, B. 1018.

Stryf, A. 248.

Stryke, pass, go, A. 1125. A.S. strican.

Strynde = strond, stream, C. 311.

Stryuande, striving, C. 311.

Stud = stede, place, B. 389, 1334.

Sturnen, strong, B. 1402.


strong, A. 779; C. 234; styfest, strongest, B. 255.

Styfly, fast, firmly, B. 352, 1652.

Styke = stryke, walk, go (?), A. 1186.

Stykked, fixed, placed, B. 583. See Steke.

Stylle, secret, A. 20; A. 589, 706; quiet, A. 1203; quietly, B. 486. See T. B. 1778.

“State from þe slyth kyng styllé by night.”

(T. B. 988.)

Stylle, secretly, B. 806, 1778.

Styngande, stinging, B. 225.

Stynkande, stinking, B. 1018.

Stynst, a mistake for stynt, stop, A. 353.

Stynt, stop, A. 225, 381, 1261; stopped, B. 73. A.S. stintan.

Styry, stir, move, B. 403, 1720.

Stysteȝ = stynteȝ, stops, B. 359.

Styȝe, path, C. 402. A.S. stíg.

Styȝe, ascend, climb, B. 389. A.S. stígan, to ascend.


Styȝtle, place, order, fix, A. 90; B. 402. A.S. stihtan, to arrange, dispose. See T. B. 1997.

“Unstithe for to stire or stightill the Realme.”

(T. B. 117.)

Sued, followed, B. 681.


A. 554.

Suffraunce, endurance, patience, A. 3, 529.

Suffyse, A. 135.


defile, pollute, B. 15, 550, 1130, 1135. O.E. sulwe, to defile, soil. M.H.D. be-sulwen. O.N. söla, to pollute. Prov. Ger. sulpern, unclean, to defile. The word sulp (solp) occurs in the Romance of K. Alexander, ed. Stevenson, but the editor renders it “to swallow”!

“Oure inward enmys ilkane we inwardly drepis,

That is to say alle the sin, at solp may ȝe (the ?) saule.”

(K. Alex. p. 146.)

Sulpande, defiling, A. 726.

Sumkyn, of some kind, A. 619.

Sumoun, to summon, A. 539.

Sum quat, some sort of, B. 627.

Sum-while, formerly, C. 57.

Sunderlupes, severally, C. 12.

Suppe, A. 108; B. 151.

Supplantor, A. 440.

Sure, A. 1089.

Sum, one, “al & sum,” one and all, A. 584.

Surely, A. 1643; B. 315.

Sustnaunce, B. 340.

Sute (?) A. 203, 1108.


Sve = sue, follow, go after, A. 976.

Swalt, died, A. 816, 1160. See T. B. 1200, 4687. See Swelt.

Swaneȝ, swans, B. 58.

Swange (pret. of swenge or swinge), toiled, worked, A. 586. A.S. swingan, to dash, to labour.

Swange, flowed, A. 1059.

Swangeande, flowing, rushing, A. 111. See T. B. 13024.

Swap, blow, B. 222. A.S. swipian. O.N. svipa, to shake. O.E. swepe, swappe, to beat. See T. B. 1889.

“He swynges out with a swerd and swappis him to dethe.” 

(K. Alex. p. 38.)

“With a swinge of his sworde swappit hym in þe fase.”

(T. B. 1271.)

Sware, square, A. 837; B. 1386.

Sware, answer, A. 240; B. 1415. O.N. svara. See T. B. 1200.

Swarme, B. 223.

Swart, black, C. 363.


sweated (pret. of swete), A. 586, 829.

Swayf, blow, literally, a sudden movement. See Swayue.

“Than Alexander . . . . .

Swythe swyngis out his swerde and his swayfe feches,

The nolle of Nicollas, the kyng, he fra the nebb partis.”

(K. Alex. p. 28.)

Swayne, swain, servant, B. 1509.

Swayue, swims. T. B. 2358. Dan. swæve, to wave, move, flutter.

Swe, follow, A. 892; ran, B. 956.

Sweande, flowing, B. 420.

Sweft, swift, C. 108.


Swelme, heat, A. 3. A.S. swell, a burning; swélan, to burn, sweal.

“[He] lete asauage, or he sware (spoke), the swelme of his angirs.”

(K. Alex. p. 21.)

Swelt, die, perish, A. 108; C. 427; destroy, B. 332. A.S. sweltan. O.N. svelta.

Swemande (pres. part. of sweme), afflicting, B. 563. A.S. swima, a stupor. S.Sax. sweamen, to grieve, vex.

“Whan this was seide, his hert began to melt

For veray sweme of this swemeful tale.”

(Lydgate’s Minor Poems, p. 38.)

“Sum swalt in a swym with outen sware more.”

(T. B. 1200.)

Sweng, sb. toil, labour, A. 575. A.S. sweng, a stroke, blow. See Swange. See T. B. 1271.

Swenge, hasten, rush, dash out, A. 109, 667; B. 108, 250, 253.

“He swynges out with a swerd and swappis him to dethe.”

(K. Alex. p. 33.)

A.S. swingan, to swing, dash.

Swepe, glide, A. 111; hasten, B. 1509. See T. B. 342. O.E. swippe, to pass quickly. O.N. svip, a rapid movement; svipa, to whip, do quickly, turn.

Swepe, to seize, C. 341. A.S. swipian, to take by violence.

Swer, swore, B. 69, 667.

Swete, life; to lose the swete = to die, C. 364. Swete may here signify sweet, the word life being understood. 199b

“And alle at lent ware on loft loste ther the swete.”

(K. Alex. p. 105.)

“—— the brande es myne awene

Many swayne, with the swynge [struck], has the swete levede.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 281.)

“All the kene mene of kampe, knyghtes and other,

Killyd are colde dede and castyne over burdez

Theire swyers sweyftly has the swete levyde.”

(Ibid. p. 309.)

Swetter, sweeter, C. 236.

Sweuen, dream, A. 62. A.S. swefen.

Swey, go, walk, A. 788; came, B. 429. See T. B. 2512. O.N. sweigia. Dan. sveje, to bend. N.Prov.E. swey, to swing; sweigh, to press. See Sve.

Sweyed, swayed, C. 151.

Sweȝe, go, A. 72; drove, C. 236.

Swolȝe, swallow, C. 250, 363; kill, B. 1268.

Swone, swoon, A. 1180. A.S. aswunan.

Swowed, swooned, C. 442. S.Sax. swowen, to swoon.

Swyed = sweyed, followed, B. 87.

Swyere, squire, B. 87,

Swypped, escaped, B. 1253. See Swepe.

Swyre, neck, B. 1744. A.S. sweora.

Swyþe, firm, strong, A. 354; A. 236; great, A. 1283; very, A. 816; many, A. 1299; quickly, A. 1059; C. 354; greatly, B. 987. A.S. swíth, strong, great; swíthe, very, greatly.

Swyþe, burn, scorch, C. 478 (pret. 200 swath). N.Prov.E. swither, to singe; swidden, to scorch. O.N. svítha.

“Mi Gode, als whele set þam,

Als stubble bi-fore wind lickam

Als fire that brennes wode swa;

Als lowe swiþand hilles ma.”

(Ps. lxxxii. 15.)

Syence, B. 1454, 1599.

Syfle, blow, C. 470. Syfle sometimes signifies to whistle. It may he connected with the Prov.E. suffe, to pant, blow. A.S. siofian, mourn, lament.

Sykande, sighing, B. 715. A.S. sycan, to sigh.

Syked, sighed, C. 382.

Sykerly, surely, C. 301. O.Fris. sikur. Ger. sicher, sure.

Syle, to glide, go, proceed, B. 131. See T. B. 364, 1307. Prov.E. sile, to go. O.N. síla.

“With that the segge all himselfe silis to his chambre.”

(K. Alex. p. 5.)

See T. B. 364.

Sylueren, silver, B. 1406.

Symbale, B. 1415.

Symple, A. 1134; B. 746.

Sympelnesse, A. 909.

Syn, since, C. 218.

Syngne, sign, B. 489, 1710.

Synglerty, singularity, singleness, A. 429.

Synglure, uniqueness, A. 8.

Syngnetteȝ, signets, A. 838.

Synne, after, B. 229.

Syre, lord, B. 1260.


sorrow, sin, A. 566, 1257; B. 5, 517. O.N. sút.

“Jacob wen he was mast in siit,

God lighted him witouten liit.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 27b.)


“This tre in forbot haf I laid,

If þou sa bald be it to bite,

Þou sal be ded in sorou and site,

And if þou haldes mi forbot,

Þou sal be laverd ouer ilk crot.”

(Ibid. fol. 52b.)

Syþe, time, A. 1079; B. 1169, 1417, 1686. A.S. sith.

Syþen, afterwards, A. 13, 643, 1207; A. 998; since, B. 245.

Sytole, citole, guitar, A. 91.


saw, A. 308, 788, 985; B. 985.


sight, A. 226; B. 552, 1710.


Ta, take, arrest, C. 78. “Ta me,” take, arrest me. Tatȝ, take, B. 735. (Cf. O.E. ma = make.)

Tabarde, coat. It sometimes signifies a short coat or mantle, B. 41. Fr. tabar. Ital. tabaro.

Tabelment, A. 994.

Taborne, tabour, B. 1414.

Tached, fixed, fastened, A. 464.

Takel, C. 233.

Tale, tale, message, B. 1437.

Talent, will, pleasure, C. 416. See T. B. 464.

Talle = tuly (?), B. 48.

Tan, taken, B. 763.

Tatȝ, take, B. 735. See Ta.

Tayt, agreeable, lively, B. 871. O.N. teitr.

“The laddes were kaske and teyte.”

(Havelok the Dane, 1841.)

“Ther mouhte men se the boles beyte,

And the bores with hundes teyte.”

(Ibid. 2331.)


Tayt, fear, B. 889.

“Brynges furthe, [as] sayd the boke, bestes out of noumbre,

And trottes on toward Tyre with taite at thaire hertes.”

(K. Alex. p. 42.)

Teche, teach, B. 160.

Teche, mark, sign, B. 1049.

Teche, fault, A. 1230; device, B. 943. Fr. tache.

Tede, an error for tene = ten (?), B. 1634.

Tee, go, A. 9, 1262; B. 87.

“Let hym tegh to þe tempull.”

(T. B. 2541.)

A.S. teon. Cf. teght, T. B. 1786.

Telde, tent, B. 866. A.S. teld.

Telded, raised, B. 1342. See T. B. 6075.

Telle, raise, excite, B. 1808. Du. tillen, to lift up.

Teme, approach, A. 460; A. 9; B. 316. See T. B. 3306. It seems to be connected with the A.S. geteman, to bear witness; teama, to cite, summon. In Laȝamon teman signifies to go, proceed, approach, vol. i. p. 53, l. 1245.

“Albion hatte that lond;

Ah leode ne beoth thar nane,

Ther to thu scalt teman [wende]

& ane neowe Troye thar makian.”

Teme, team, C. 37.

Teme, theme, C. 358.

Tempest, C. 231.

Temple, A. 1062.

Tempre, moderate, B. 775.

Temptande, tempting, B. 283.

Tender, A. 412; B. 630.

Tene, sb. anger, sorrow, A. 332; 201b B. 283, 687, 1137; A. 90; adj. angry, C. 1808; vb. punish, B. 759. A.S. teonan, tynan, to anger; teona, wrong, mischief.

Tenfully, sorrowfully, bitterly, B. 160.

Tenor, C. 358.

Tenoun, A. 993.


attend, care for, A. 676, 935; C. 59, 498; heed, B. 387.

Terme, term, A. 1053; B. 1393.

Terne, lake, B. 1041. N.Prov.E. tarn. O.N. tjörn.

Teuel (or tenel ?), enclose, or ? undermine, B. 1189.

Þacce, blow, C. 325. A.S. thaccian, to stroke.

Þayreȝ, theirs, B. 1527.

Þaȝ, though, A. 134.

Þede, country, A. 711. A.S. theód.

“I sett ȝowe ane ensample ȝe se it alle day,

In thorps and in many thede ther ȝe thurȝe ride,

At ilka cote a kene curr, as he the chache walde,

Bot as bremely as he baies, he bitis never the faster.”

(K. Alex. p. 62.)

Þede, vessel, B. 1717. Prov.E. thead, a strainer used in brewing. “Thede, bruares instrument, qualus.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Þeder, thither, B. 461.

Þef, thief, A. 273.

Theme, A. 944; C. 358.


than, A. 134.

Þenkande, thinking, C. 294.

Þerue, unleavened, B. 635. Prov.E. 202 therf, tharf, thar. A.S. theorf, therf.

Þester, darkness, B. 1775. A.S. theostru. See T. B. 2362.

Þewe, virtue, A. 1436; C. 30; ordinances, B. 544, 755.

Þewed, virtuous, B. 733.

Þewes, thieves, B. 1142.

Þikker, oftener, C. 6.

Þirled, pierced, B. 952.

Þo, the (pl.), A. 635; those, B. 557.

Þole, suffer, A. 344; A. 190; B. 6. A.S. thólian, to suffer, endure.

Þonc, sb. thank, A. 901.

Þonkke, vb. thank, B. 745.

Þore, there, A. 562.

Þorpe, city, B. 1178. O.N. thorp.

Þorȝ, through. See Þurȝ.

Þoȝ, though, A. 345.

Þoȝt, seemed, A. 153; B. 562.

Þoȝt, imagination, B. 516.

Þrad, reproached, tormented, B. 751. A.S. threagan (pret. threáde, p.p. thread), to blame, vex, torment.

Þrange, pierce, A. 17. See Þrenge.

Þrast, stroke, thrust, B. 952.

Þrat, vexation, torment, C. 55. A.S. threat, threat; threatian, to vex, distress.

Þratten (3d pers. pl. pret.) threatened, B. 937.

Þrawe, to reach, B. 590.

Þrawen, close, thick, B. 1775.

Þrenge, press, crowd after, follow, A. 930; pass, B. 354. A.S. thringan, to press, crowd, throng. O.N. threnga.

Þrep, contradiction, B. 350. 202b N.Prov.E. threap, threpe, to dispute. A.S. threapian, to reprove, chide.

Withoutyn threp more.”

(T. B. 1127.)

Þrepyng, sb. strife, B. 183. A.S. threapung.


threaten, A. 561; B. 680, 1728.

Þretty, thirty, B. 751.

Þreuenest, wisest, noblest, B. 1571.

Þro, anger, A. 754; C. 6; angry, B. 344. N.Prov.E. thro, keen, eager. O.N. thrá.

“Be þou noght in þi hert so thra.”

(MS. Harl. 4196. fol. 94.)

Cf. “his throo hert,” T. B. 147. “A throo (bold) knight.” Ib. 1482.

Þro, good, A. 868.

Þro, sharply, quickly, B. 220. A.S. threá.

Þro, thoroughly, B. 1805.

Þroble, press, B. 879.

Þroly, fiercely, quickly, B. 180, 514.

Throly he thoght in his hert.”

(T. B. 209.)


sb. crowd, B. 135, 504, 754.

Þrongen (3d pers. pl. pret. of thringe), crowded, pressed, B. 1775.

“Mony thoughtes full thro thronge in hir brest.”

(T. B. 470.)

Þrublande, pressing, B. 504. See Þroble.


thrown, B. 220, 504.

Þrych, through, A. 17. O.Sc. throuch.


third, A. 833; B. 249, 300, 1639.

Þryeȝ, thrice, B. 429.

Þrynge, press, A. 180; follow, B. 1639. See Þrenge.

Þrynne, three, B. 606, 1727.

Þryuande, good, pure, B. 751. See T. B. 1482.

Þryue, prosper, thrive, A. 249; B. 521.

Þryuen, prudent, wise, A. 868, 1192; grown up, adult, A. 298; þryuenest, wisest, noblest, B. 1639.

Þryȝt, thrust, pressed, thronged, A. 670, 706, 926; B. 135; Cf. thriccing of hondys. T. B. 1522. A.S. thryccan (pret. thrycte), to thrust, press, tread on.

Þurȝ, through, A. 670.

Þykke, closely, B. 504.

Þyȝe, thigh, B. 1687.

To, toe, C. 229.

To-cleues, separate, B. 1806.

To-corue (3d pers. pl. pret.), slit, ript up, B. 1250.

Token, betoken, B. 1557.

To-kerue, divide, B. 1700.


tool, B. 1108, 1342.


man, B. 687, 757. Tolk, like segge, signified originally a speaker, an interpreter. O.N. túlka, to explain, interpret; túlkr, an interpreter, a mediator. See T. B. 63.

Tom, (1) leisure, A. 134; opportunity, A. 1153; interval, B. 135; 203b (2) time, A. 585. O.Sw. and O.N. tóm. “Toom oportunitas.” (Prompt. Parv.)

“Tharfore þis tyme I may noght cum

Telle þi lord I haue no tome.”

(MS. Harl, 4196, fol. 105.)

In T. B. 1088, we have tomly.

To-marred, spoilt, B. 1114.

To-murte, crushed to pieces, C. 150. See murte, T. B. 6128.

Tonne (or toune?), conceive, B. 655.

Top, head, C. 229.

Topace, topaz, B. 1469.

Tor, tower, A. 966.

Tor, hard, A. 1109. O.N. tor. Sans. dus, hard, difficult. Cf. O.E. torfer, hardship, T. B. 81.

“But this tyme is so tore.”

(T. B. 645.)


rent asunder, A. 1136; A. 368; B. 96.

To-riuen, torn away, A. 1197.

Tormenttour, B. 154.

To-rof (pret. of to-riue), burst, A. 964; B. 379.

Torreȝ, towers, A. 875,

Toter, totter, C. 233.

Toteȝ = totȝ, toes; Cf. gotȝ = goes, etc., B. 41.

To-torne, torn, B. 41.

Totȝ, goes, A. 513. Sw. tota.

Tour, tower, B. 216.

Tourneȝ = turns, devices, B. 192.

Tow, two, B. 866.

Two pyllers he pight in a place low.”

(T. B. 310.)

To-walten, overflowed (3d pers. pl.), B. 428.


Towche, to relate, deliver a message, speak, A. 898; B. 1437

“Litille kyngis there come . . . . .

Touches titly thair tale and tribute him askis.”

(K. Alex. p. 31.)

Towche, sb. touch, C. 252.

Towe, C. 100.

Towen, drawn, A. 251.

Toȝe, tough, B. 630.

Toȝt, firm, binding, A. 522.

Tra, high (?), B. 211, or (?) tor, great, difficult of access.

“This castel es o luve and grace,

Bath o socur and o solace,

Apon the mathe it standes traist;

O fede ne dredes it na fraist;

It is hei sett upon þe crag,

Trai and hard wituten hag.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 55a.)

Tramme, tackle, gear? C. 101. In the northern Romance of Alexander, p. 5, tramme signifies an instrument (optical).

“He toke trammes him with to tute (look) in the sternes.”

Tras = trace, path, course, A. 1113. “Trace, a streyght way, trace.” (Palsg.)

Trasches = trauses or trossers, drawers or trousers? B. 40.

Trauayle, sb. labour, A. 505; vb. A. 550; C. 498.

Trave = trawe, believe, B. 587.

Trauerce = traverse, B. 1473.


= trow, believe, suppose, A. 282, 295; B. 655, 1335, 1686. See T. B. 298.

Trawande, believing, B. 662.


truth, A. 495; B. 63, 667; belief, 1490, 1703.


Trayled, B. 1473.

Traysoun, treason, B. 187.


certainly, surely? B. 907, 1137. If trayþly be derived from trauth, truth, the meaning here assigned to it may be correct; but the sense of fiercely, fearfully, would suit the context better.

Traytoure, A. 1041; B. 77.

Tre, wood, B. 1342.

Trendel, roll, A. 41.

Tres, yards (of a ship), C. 101.


treasure, A. 237, 331, B. 866.

Tresorye, treasury, B. 1317.

Trespas, B. 48.

Trespast, B. 1230.

Trestes, trestles, B. 832.

Trichcherye, treachery, B. 187.

Troched, ornamented? An architectural term of uncertain meaning, B. 1383.


went (pret. of tryne), A. 1113; A. 132; B. 101. See Trynande.

Trone, throne, A. 1055.

Trot, sb. pace, step, B. 976.

Trow, believe, B. 1049.

Trumpen, trumpets, B. 1402.

Trussed, deposited, B. 1317. See T. B. 1819.

Trwe, true, A. 460.

Tryed, select, trusty, B. 1317. O.E. trie, choice. See T. B. 695.

Tryfled = trayfoled, ornamented with knots, B. 1473. Fr. treffilier, a chain maker.

Trynande, going, walking, B. 976. Dan. trine, to go. 205

“Than the traytoure treunted the Tyesday thar aftyre,

Trynnys in with a trayne tresone to wirke.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 326.)

“The trays (path) of the traytoure he trynys fulle evenne,

And turnys in be Treynte, the traytoure to seche.”

(Ibid. p. 339.)

“They tryne unto a tente whare tables whare raysede.”

(Ibid. p. 267.)

Tryste, trusty, A. 460; vb. to trust, C. 324.

Trysty, trusty, B. 763.

Tryȝe, to trust in, rely upon, A. 311. N.Prov.E. trigg, firm, faithful. Sw. trygg, safe, sure.

Tuch, cloth, B. 48. Ger. tuch. Cf. Eng. tuck and tucker.

Tulkke, man, soldier, B. 1189, 1262. See Tolk.

“The Tothyr was a Tulke out of Troy selfe.”

(T. B. 63.)

Tulket = tulked, sounded, B. 1414. The original meaning of tulk is to speak, explain (O.N. túlka), hence to utter, sound.

“The Tebies tulked (addressed) us with tene (anger).”

(K. Alex. p. 83.)

Tult, threw, pitched. A. 1213; B. 252. See Tilt, in T. B. 914, 3704. A.S. tealtian, to tilt, shake.

Tuyred, destroyed, B. 1234.

Twayned, separated, A. 251.

Tweyne, two, B. 674, 1749.

Twynande, entwining, B. 1691. Sw. twinna, to twine.

Twynne, two, A. 251; B. 1047.

Twynne, separate, B. 402.


Tyd, quickly, A. 64, 1213; B. 100, 229. A.S. tíd, tídlíce. Sw. tida, frequently.

Tyde, time, B. 1393.

Tykel, uncertain, B. 655.

Tylle, to, B. 1064.

Tymbre, B. 1414. “Tymbyr a lytyl taboure, timpanellum.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Tylte, overturn, A. 832; tumble, B. 361.

Tylude ouer borde.”

(T. B. 3704.)

Tynde, branch, A. 78. A.S. tine. O.E. tind, a tine, tooth, prong, fork.

Tyne, lose, A. 332; destroy, B. 775, 907. O.N. tyna.

Tynt, lost, B. 216. See T. B. 1208.

Type, overturn, C. 506.

Typped, extreme, C. 77.

Tyraunte, B. 943.

Tyrauntyré, tyranny, B. 187.

Tyrne, flay, B. 630. Du. tornen, to rend, rip up.

“And so thai did al bidene and sum oure douth sloȝe,

Tuke out the tuskis and the tethe, and ternen of the skinnes.”

(K. Alex. p. 140.)

Tyt, quickly, A. 728. N.Prov.E. tite, soon. Cf. tytly, T. B. 1094. See Tyd.

Tyþe, tenth, B. 216.

Tyþynge, tiding, A. 458, 498; B. 78.

Tytter, sooner, C. 231. N.Prov.E. titter. See Tyt.

Tyxt, text, A. 1634; B. 37.

Tyȝed, tied, A. 464; B. 702.


described, A. 1053; give, A. 1153; endeavour, A. 1108; near, B. 503. See T. B. 1358. A.S. tihtan, to draw.


U = o = of, A. 792.



= ilk, ilka, each, every. A. 33, 117.

Vchon, each one, A. 546.

Vglokest (superl. of vgly), most horrid, dreadful, B. 892. See vgsome, horrible, T. B. 877.

Vmbe, about, A. 879, 1384; B. 309. A.S. ymbe.

“Grete toures full toure all þe toune vmbe.”

(T. B. 320.)

Vmbe-brayde, accost, B. 1622. See Brayde.

Vmbe-grouen, overgrown, B. 488.

Vmbe-kest, look about, B. 478.

Vmbe-lyȝe, compass, surround, B. 836.

Vmbe-pyȝte, surrounded, A. 1052.

Vmbre, rain, B. 524. Cf. ymur, in T. B. 897. Lat. imber.

Vmbe-schon, shone about, C. 455.


at times, sometimes, C. 7, 122.

Vmbe-sweyed, encircled, B. 1380.

Vmbe-walt, surrounded, B. 1181.

Vnavysed, unadvised, thoughtless, A. 292.

Vnblemyst, unblemished, A. 782.

Vn-brosten, unburst, B. 365.

Vnblyþe, dismal, B. 1017.

Vncheryst, uncherished, uncared for, B. 1125.

Vnclannesse, uncleanness. B. 30, 1800, 1806.


Vnclene, B. 550, 1713.

Vncler, indistinct, C. 307.

Vnclose, disclose, B. 26, 1438.

Vncortoyse, uncourteous, A. 303.


unknown, B. 414, 1600, 1722.

Vnder, the third hour of the day, A. 513. A.S. undern. Goth. undaurns.

Vnder-nomen, understood, perceived, C. 213.

Vnder-stonde, understand, A. 941; C. 122.

Vnder-ȝede = under-ȝete, understood, B. 796. A.S. undergitan, to perceive.

Vndyd, destroyed, B. 562.

Vnfayre, bad, B. 1801.

Vnfolde, B. 1563.

Vnfre, unfortunate, B. 1129.

Vngarnyst, unadorned, B. 137.

Vnglad, sorry, C. 63.

Vngoderly, bad, wicked, B. 145, 1092.

Vnhap, misfortune, A. 143, 1150; misery, B. 892. See T. B. 1402.

Vnhappen, unfortunate; and hence bad, B. 573.

Vnhaspe, disclose, B. 688.

Vnhole, badly, B. 1681.

Vnhonest, vile, B. 579.

Vnhuled, uncovered, B. 451. See Hile.

Vnhyde, disclose, A. 973.

Vnhyle, disclose, B. 1628. See Hile.

Vnknawen, unknown, B. 1679.

Vnkyndely, wickedly, B. 208.

Vnmard, undefiled, B. 867.

Vnmete, unmeet, unfit, A. 759.

Vnneuened, unnamed, B. 727. See Neuen.


Vnnynges, signs, C. 213. A.S. unnan, to give, grant, permit.

Vnpynne, to unpin, unfasten, A. 728.

Vnresounable, unreasonable, A. 590.

Vnryȝt, wrong, B. 1142.

Vnsmyten, B. 732.

Vnsounde, wicked, evil, bad, A. 575; C. 527; misfortune, wretched state, B. 58. See T. B. 495.

Vnsoundely, badly, B. 201. See T. B. 1826.

Vnstered, unmoved, B. 706.

Vnstrayned, untroubled, A. 248.

Vnswolȝed, unhurt, B. 1253. See Swolȝe.


wrath, displeasure, A. 183; B. 55.

Vnþewe, fault, vice, B. 190. See Thewe.

Vnþryfte, folly, wickedness, B. 516, 1728.

Vnþryftyly, unwisely, badly, B. 267.

Vnþryuandly = unthrivingly, badly, B. 135. See T. B. 4893.

Vntrwe, untrue, A. 897; A. 456; unfaithful, B. 1160.

Vntwynne, separate; and hence, destroy, B. 757.

Vnwar, foolish, C. 115.

Vnwaschen, unwashed, B. 34.

Vnwelcum, B. 49.

Vnworþelych, unworthy, B. 305.

Vnwytté, unwise, foolish, simple, C. 511.

Vpbrayde, literally to raise; and hence to utter loudly, rebuke, C. 430. See Brayde. In the sense of to utter, speak, we find 207b upbrayde used in the following passage.

“Again my brether haue I bene

Oft-sith lightly for to tene,

Wit flitt, wit brixil, strive and strut;

Myn euen cristen haue I hurt,

And oft unsaght o him I said,

And of his lastes (faults) gane upbraid.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 156.)

Vp-caste, spoken, B. 1574.

Vp-folden, up-folded, B. 643.

Vp-lyfte, uplifted, B. 987.

Vpon, open, B. 453.

Vp-rerde, upreared, B. 561.

Vp-ros, uprose, C. 378.

Vpryse, C. 433.

Vp-set, raised, C. 239.

Vp-so-doun, upside down, C. 362.

Vp-wafte, uprose, B. 949.

Vpynyoun, opinion, C. 40.

Vrnementes, ornaments, B. 1284.

Vrþe, earth, A. 442.

Vrþely, earthly, A. 135; B. 35.

Vsage, B. 710.

Vsched, A. 1393, to vsched = ? tousched = towched, approached. See B. 1437.

Vse, B. 11.


ashes, cinders, B. 747, 1010. A.S. ysle, ashes. O.N. usli, fire. “Isyl, of fyre. Favilla.” (Prompt. Parv.) Prov.E. isle, easle, embers; eizle, ashes.

Vtter, out, A. 42; without, B. 927.

Vt-wyth, without, outside, A. 969.

Vus, us, B. 842.

Vȝten, the morning, dawn, B. 893. A.S. uhta.

“Hi sloȝen and fuȝten

Þe niȝt and þe uȝten.”

(K. Horn, 1424.)


Vale, A. 127; B. 673.

Vanyté, A. 1713; B. 331.

Vanyste, vanished, B. 1548.

Vayle, avail, A. 912; B. 1151, 1311.

Vayment, exhibition, show, B. 1358.

Vayn, A. 811; B. 1358.

Vayned, brought, A. 249. See Wayned.

Venge, avenge, A. 199, 559; B. 71.

Vengeaunce, B. 247, 1013.


vanquished, B. 544, 1071.

Venym, venom, filth, A. 574; B. 71.


true, A. 1184, 1185; truly, A. 333; very, C. 370.

Verayly, verily, B. 664, 1548.

Vered, veered, raised, A. 254.

Vergyne, virgin, A. 1099.


virginity, A. 767; B. 1071.

Vertue, A. 1126.

Vertuous, precious, B. 1280.

Vessayl, vessel, B. 1713.

Vesselment, vessels, B. 1280, 1288.

Vesture, B. 1288.

Veued = weued, passed, A. 976. See Weue.

Vilanye, C. 71.

Vilté, filth, vileness, B. 199. O.Fr. vilté.

Violent, B. 1013.

Voched, prayed, A. 1121. Fr. voucher.

Vouche, resolve, B. 1358.

Vouched, vowed, C. 165.

Vowe, C. 239.

Voyde, do away with; A. 744; destroy, A. 1013; C. 370; depart, B. 1548.


Vus, use, or ? drink, B. 1507. We may, however read, and thus preserve the alliteration, bus = bous = bouse, to drink deeply. Du. buysen.

Vycios, vicious, B. 574.

Vyf, wife, A. 772.

Vygour, 971.

Vyl, vile, evil, B. 744.

Vylanye, crime, sin, B. 544, 574.

Vyle, defile, B. 863.

Vyole, vial, B. 1280.

Vyolence, B. 1071.

Vyrgyn, A. 426.


face, A. 254. O.Fr. vis.

Vyueȝ, wives, A. 785.


Wach, watch, B. 1205.

Wade, A. 143, 1151.

Waft, closed, B. 857. A.S. wefan, wæfan, to cover. O.N. vefa.

Wafte, move, lift up, raise, A. 453 O.N. veifa, to raise, move, swing. Waft, B. 857, in the sense of closed may be of the same origin with wafte

Wage, endure, A. 416.

Wage, wave, B. 1484. A.S. wágian.

Wake, watch, A. 85; B. 130. A.S. wæccan. O.N. vaka.

Waken, raise, arouse, awake, A. 1171; A. 323, 437, 891, 933, 948; B. 132; O.N. vakna.

“Wyndis at hir wille to wakyn in the aire.”

(T. B. 404.)

Wakker (comp. of wayke), weaker B. 835.


vb. discern, A. 1000; choose, select, A. 921; B. 511; adj. noble, choice, B.

209 1734. Sc. wale. See T. 386, 4716. Ger. wählen, to choose, select. O.N. val, electio, optio, delectus.

“O mister was ther wimmen tuin,

Þat ledd þar liif wit sike and sin,

Ffor þai had husing nan to wale,

Þai lended in a littel scale.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 48a.)

“Of choys men syne, walit by cut (lot), thai tuke

A gret numbyr, and hyd in bylgis dern.”

(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 72.)

“Awai þan drou him son Davi,

Bot Saul dred him mo forþi,

And of a thusand men o wal (worth)

He made him ledder and marscal.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 43a.)

“That worthy had a wyfe walit hym seluon.”

(T. B. 105.)

Walkyries, witches, fate-readers, B. 1577. O.N. valkyriur; f. pl. Parcæ. Dan. valkyrier.

Wallande, boiling, bubbling up, A. 365. A.S. weallan, to boil up.

Walle-heued = well-head, spring, B. 364.


rolled, turned, B. 501, 1734. Prov.E. walt, welt. A.S. wealtian, to roll. O.N. vella.

“Hit walt up the wilde se.”

(T. B. 4633.)

Walter, roll, flow, A. 415, 1027; B. 142. O.Sc. welter, walter. Dan. vælte, to roll. See Walt.

Waltereȝ, an error for watterez = waters? C. 263.

Walterande, swimming, C. 247.

Walteȝ, pours, rushes, flows, B. 364, 1037. See Walte, T. B. 3699, 4632.


Wame, belly. See Wombe.

Wamel, to wamble, C. 300. O.N. vambla. Dan. vamle, to wamble, to create or cause a squeamishness or loathing. “Wamelyn’ in the stomake. Nauseo.” “Wamelynge of the stomake, Nausia.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Wan (pret. of wynne), got, reached, A. 107; B. 140.

Wap, a step, C. 449. O.N. vapp. It is generally explained by a blow, stroke, which was probably its original meaning.

“The werld wannes at a wappe and the wedire gloumes.”

(K. Alex. p. 141.)

“It (worldly wealth) wites away at a wapp, as the wynd turnes.”

(Ibid. p. 181.)

See T. B. 207, 6405.

Wappe, to strike, knock, B. 882.

War, aware, A. 1096; crafty, B. 589. A.S. wær, wary. O.N. var.


guard, beware, B. 165, 545, 1133. A.S. wárian.

Warded, guarded, C. 258. A.S. weardian, to guard.

Ware, were, A. 151.

Warisch, protect, B. 921.

Warlaȝe, wizard, B. 1560. See Warlow.

Warlok, prison, C. 80.

Warlow, a monster, C. 258. A.S. wér-loga, a liar, a faith-breaker.

“Þe warlaȝ was wete of his wan atter.”

(T. B. 303.)

Warne, bid, C. 469.

Warnyng, sb. B. 1504.


cast, hurl, A. 444; ejaculate, utter, B. 879; 210 B. 152, 213. O.N. varpa. A.S. weorpan, to throw, cast.

Warþe, a water-ford, C. 339. A.S. warth, waroth, the shore.

Wary, curse, B. 513. A.S. wærgian, to curse.

Waryed, accursed, B. 1716.

Wassayl, B. 1508.


destroy, B. 326, 431, 1178. A.S. wéstan.

Wasturne, a wilderness, B. 1674. Wasterne signifies a desert place, from the A.S. wéste, desert, barren, and ærn, a place.

“Methoughte I was in a wode willed myne one,

That I ne wiste no waye whedire that I scholde,

Ffore wolueȝ and whilde swynne, swykkyde bestez,

Walkede in that wasterne wathes to seche.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 270.)

Wate = wot, know, A. 502. A.S. witan (Ic wát, þu wást, he wát).

Water, stream, A. 107, 139; river, B. 1380.

Wauleȝ, shelterless, from the A.S. wáh, a wall (?), C. 262. We should perhaps read wanleȝ = wonleȝ, hopeless, from the A.S. wén. O.N. von. O.E. wone, hope.

Wawe, wave, A. 287; A. 382; B. 142. A.S. wæg.

Wax, increase, B. 521.

Waxlokes, waves (?), B. 1037.

Wayferand, wayfaring, B. 79.

Waykned, weakened, B. 1422. O.N. veikr. A.S. wác, weak; wácan, to become weak.

Wayle, select, choice, B. 1716. See Wale.


Waymot, passionate, C. 492. A.S. weamod.

Wayne, give, B. 1504; gain, recover, 1616, 1701. The original meaning seems to be that of gaining, getting. O.Fr. gaagnier. In some O.E. works wayne is used like our word get.

“Than past up the proude quene into prevé chambre,

Waynes (i.e. puts out her head) out at wyndow and waytes aboute.”

(K. Alex. p. 33.)

Wayte, look into, search, A. 99; be careful, A. 292; look about, A. 1423; inquire, B. 1552. See T. B. 876. “Waytyn or aspyyn, observo.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Waȝeȝes, waȝes, waves, B. 404.

“Girdon ouer the grym waghes.”

(T. B. 1410.)

See Wawe.

Webbe, cloth, A. 71.

Wedde, A. 772; B. 69.

Wedded wyf, B. 330.

Weddyng, A. 791.


garments, weeds, A. 748, 766; B. 793. A.S. wæd.


become mad, B. 1585. A.S. wédan, to rave, be mad.

Weder, storm, B. 444, 948.

Weder, weather, B. 1760.

Wela-wynnely, very joyfully, B. 831. A.S. welig, rich, bountiful; wyn, pleasure, joy.


B. 813.

Welde, govern, rule, wield, A. 195, 835; use, employ, possess, A. 705, 1351; B. 16. A.S. wealdan, rule, exercise, possess.

Welder, ruler, C. 129.


Wele, joy (pl. weleȝ), A. 14, 154, 394; A. 651; B. 262. A.S. wela.

Welgest, worthiest, B. 1244. A.S. welig (welga), rich, wealthy.

Welke, walked, A. 101.

Welkyn, welkin, the sky. A.S. welcn, wolcen. O.Sc. walk, a cloud.

Welle-hedeȝ, springs, B. 428.

Welt, revolved, C. 115. See Walter.

Welwed, faded, C. 475. A.S. wealwian.

“The grond stud burrant, widderit dosk or gray,

Herbis, flowris and gersis wallowyt away.”

(G. Douglas, vol. i. p. 378.)

Wely, joyous, happy, A. 101. A.S. welig.

Welli make, Laverd, and noght ille,

To Syon in þi gode wille.”

(Ps. i. 20.)

“Þan was þar never suilk a hald,

Ne nan in welier in werld to wald.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 55b.)


spot, blemish, A. 1003. A.S. wem.

Wemleȝ, spotless, without blemish.

Wenche, woman, A. 974, 1250; concubine, B. 1716. A.S. wencle, a maid. S.Sax. wenchell, a child.

Wende = wened, thought, A. 1148; C. 111.

Wene = ween, believe, A. 47; A. 821; B. 244. A.S. wénan.

Wene, doubt, A. 1141.

Weng, avenge, B. 201.

Wenyng, supposition, C. 115.

Wepande, weeping, C. 384.

Weppen, weapon, B. 835.


Wered, guarded, protected, C. 486. A.S. weren. Ger. wehren, defend.

Werkeȝ, labours, B. 136.

Werp (pret. of warp), threw, B. 284.

Werre, war, B. 1178.

Wers, worse, B. 80.

Werte, root, herb, C. 478. A.S. wyrt.

Weryng, wearing, age, B. 1123. “Weryn or wax olde, febyl, veterasco.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Wesch, washed, A. 766.

Westernays, wrongly, A. 307. See Note on this word, p. 106. ? wiþer-ways, wrong-wise.

Wete, wet, A. 761.

Weue, pass, A. 318.

Weued, cut off (?), B. 222.

Wex (pret. of wax), became, A. 538; B. 204.

Weȝe, weigh (anchor), C. 103; carry round, B. 1420, 1508. A.S. wegan, to weigh, carry.

Weȝte, weight, B. 1734.

Wham, whom, A. 131.

Whateȝ = watȝ, was, A. 1041.

What-kyn, what kind of, B. 100.

Whichche = hutch, ark, B. 362. “Hutche or whyche, cista, archa.” (Prompt. Parv.) A.S. hwæcca.

Whyle, moment, B. 1620.

Wite, blame. See Wyte.

With-droȝ, withdrew, A. 658.

With-nay, refuse, deny, A. 916.

Wiȝt = wight, quickly, C. 103. See Wyȝt.

Wlate, to abhor, hate, detest, A. 305; to be disgusted at, B. 1501. A.S. wlættian.

Wlatsum, hateful, abominable, B. 541.


beautiful, A. 122, 1171; A. 606, 793, 933; C. 486; good, B. 903. A.S. wlanc.


mad, enraged, A. 204, 1558; foolish, A. 828; fierce, strong, A. 364; B. 142. A.S. wód.

Wodbynde, woodbine, C. 446.

Wodder (comp. of wode), fiercer, rougher, C. 162.

Woghe, wrong, sin, A. 622. A.S. woh.

Wolde = walde, perform, do, A. 812. See Welde.

Wolde, would, A. 772.

Wolen, woollen, A. 731.

Wolle, wool, A. 844.

Wombe, belly, B. 462, 1250.


sb. dwelling, abode, A. 32, 1049; A. 140, 928; woneȝ, A. 917, 924; vb. to dwell, A. 404, 298; B. 875. A.S. wunian. O.Fris. wona.

Won = wone, custom, usage, B. 720. A.S. wune.

Wonde, fear, hesitate, B. 855. A.S. wandian.

Wonde = wande, delay, cease, A. 153.

“[I wole] for no dethe wonde.”

(T. B. 591.)

“I wille noghte wonde for no werre,

To wende whare me likes.”

(Morte Arthure, p. 292.)

“Sua did þis wiif I yow of redd,

Sco folud Joseph ai þar he fledd,

And for sco foluand fand a spurn,

Sco waited him wit a werr turn,

Hirself in godds gram and gilt,

And almast did him to be spilt;

How sco broght him to the fand (trial),

Fforth to telle wil I noght waand.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 25a.)


Wonder, adj. wonderful, A. 1095; B. 153.

Wonderly, wonderfully, A. 570; B. 384.

Woned = waned, decreased, B. 496. A.S. wanian, to decrease.

Wonen (pret. pl.) got, B. 1777.

Wonne, pale, wan, C. 141. A.S. wonn, wan.

Wonne, got, A. 32.

Wonnen, begotten, B. 112.

Wonnyng, dwelling, B. 921. See Won.

Wont, be wanting, B. 739.

Wony, dwell, abide, live, A. 284; A. 431; B. 462. See Won.

Wonyande, dwelling, living, B. 293.

Wonys, dwells, A. 47.

Worche, vb. work, labour, A. 511.

Worcher = worker, maker, B. 1501.

Worchyp, honour, B. 1802.

Worded, spoken, uttered, C. 421.

Wore, were, A. 142, 232; B. 928.

Worme, reptile, B. 533.

Worre, weaker, literally, worse, B. 719. O.N. verr. Sw. värre. O.Sc. war. O.E. werr, worse.

Worschyp, honour, A. 394.

Worteȝ, herbs, A. 42. See Werte.

Worþe, to be, C. 22.


worthy, A. 47, 846, 1073; B. 471, 651, 1298, 1351; beautiful, C. 475.

Worþloker, more worthy (comp. of worþelych), C. 464.


knowest, A. 293, 411; B. 875. See Wot.

Wot, know, A. 47, 1107; C. 129.


Wote, knows, C. 397.

Woþe, hurt, harm, B. 855. This word occurs under the forms quathe, wathe, and seems to be related to O.E. qued. Low Ger. quat, bad. O.E. wathe, bad; wathely, badly.

“Ffor woþe of þe worse.”

(T. B. 1223.)

Woþe, path, A. 151, 375. A.S. wáth, wáthu. O.E. wathe, a way, path. See extract under the word Wasturne.


wall, A. 1049; B. 832, 839, 1403, 1531. A.S. wáh. “Wowe or wal, murus.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Wrache, vengeance, A. 204, 229; B. 185. A.S. wrec, wracu.

Wrak (pret. of wreke), avenged, B. 570.

Wrake, vengeance, B. 213, 235, 718, 970, 1225.

Wrakful, angry, bitter, B. 302, 541.

Wrang, wrong, A. 15; A. 76; wrongly, A. 488, 631; bad, B. 384.

Wraste (pret. of wreste), raised, uplifted, A. 1166, 1403; thrust, 1802; B. 80.


wrestle, A. 949; B. 141.

Wraþe, become angry, A. 230; C. 74; make angry, B. 719.

Wraȝte, wrought, A. 56.

Wrech = wrache, vengeance, B. 230.


wretch, A. 84, 828; B. 113.

Wrech, wretched, C. 258. A.S. 213b wrec, wretched. With wrech and wretched, cf. wik and wikked.


avenged, B. 198.

Wrenche, device, B. 292. A.S. wrence.

Wro, passage; literally, corner, A. 866. O.Sw. wraa. Dan. vraa.

Wroken, (pret. of wreke), banished, exiled, A. 375. A.S. wrecan, to exile, banish.

Wrot (pret. of wrote), grubbed up, C. 467. A.S. wrótan, to turn up with the snout; wrót, a snout.

“With wrathe he begynnus to wrote,

He ruskes vppe mony a rote

With tusshes of iij. fote.”

(Avowynge of Arthur, xii. 13.)

Wroþe, fierce, B. 1676. A.S. wráth, wroth, enraged.

Wroþeloker (comp. of wroþely), more fiercely, angrily, C. 132.


angrily, fiercely, A. 280, 949; B. 132.

Wroþer (comp. of wroþe), fiercer, C. 162.


wrought, worked, A. 525, 748.

Wruxeled, raised, B. 1381. Wrixle = change, turn, occurs in T. B. 445.

“Þis unwarnes of wit wrixlis hys mynd.”

Wryst, B. 1535.

Wryt, B. 1552.

Wryþe, turn, A. 350, 488; wriggle, A. 533; toil, A. 511; bind, thrust, B. 80. A.S. writhan, to writhe, bind, twist. “Writhen like a wilde eddur.” T. B. 4432.

Wunder, B. 1390.

Wunnen, won, B. 1305.


Wyche, B. 1577.

Wyche-crafte, B. 1560.

Wyddere, wither, C. 468.

Wydowande (wyndowande), withering, dry, B. 1048; wyndowand = burnt up. N.Prov.E. winny, to dry, burn up.

Wyke, member, part, B. 1690. O.N. vik.


wicked, B. 908, 1063. A.S. wícan, to become weak, to yield. O.N. víkia.


wicket, gate, door, B. 501, 857.


wandering, C. 473; forlorn, B. 76. O.N. villa, error; villa, to lead astray, beguile. Phrase, wille o wan, astray from abode, uncertain where to go; wil-sum, wil-ful, lonely, solitary, desert.

“So I wilt in the wod.”

(T. B. 2359.)

“Adam went out ful wille o wan.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 7a.)

“All wery I wex and wyle of my gate.”

(T. B. 2369.)

“Sone ware thay willid fra the way the wod was so thick.”

(K. Alex. p. 102.)

“Sorful bicom þat fals file (the devil)

And thoght how he moght man bi-wille;

Agains God wex he sa gril,

Þat alle his werk he wend to spil.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 5b.)

“His suns þat (we) of forwit melt,

Al þe werld bituix þam delt;

Asie to Sem, to Cham Affrik,

To Japhet Europ þat wilful wike:

Al þer þre þai war ful rike.”

(Ibid. fol. 13a.)

Wyldren = wyldern (?), waste, wilderness, C. 297. A.S. wild, 214b wild, and ærn, a place (?). See Wasturne.

“In wildrin land and in wastin,

I wil tham (the Israelites) bring of þair nocin;

Bot wel I wat he (Pharaoh) is ful thra,

Lath sal him think to let þam ga.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 33a.)

Wylsfully, wilfully, B. 268.

Wylger, wild, fierce, B. 375. See extract under the word Note.

Wylle, forlorn, B. 76. See Wyl.

Wylnes, apostacy, B. 231.

Wylneȝ, desirest (2d pers. sing of wylne), A. 318. A.S. wilnian.

Wyly, curiously, craftily, B. 1452. A.S. wile, a device.

Wyndas, windlass, C. 103.

Wyndowe, B. 453.

Wynne, joyful, A. 154. A.S. wyn, pleasure, delight.

Wynne, obtain, get, A. 579; B. 617. A.S. winnan. See T. B. 1165.

Wynnelych, gracious, B. 1807, Cp. wynly = dexterously, 1165.

Wyrde, fate, destiny, A. 249, 273; B. 1224. Sc. wird. A.S. wyrd.

Wyrle, flew, B. 475.

Wyschande, hoping for, wishing, A. 14.

Wyse, manner, A. 1095; wyses, B. 1805.


show, appear, A. 1135, A. 1564; direct, send out, A. 453; instruct, B. 60. A.S. wissian.


knew, A. 376; B. 152.

Wyt, wisdom, A. 348; B. 129.

Wyt, know, learn, B. 1319, 1360. A.S. witan.


Wyte, blame, A. 76; B. 501. A.S. wítian.

Wyte, pass away (?), C. 397. A.S. wítan.

Wyter, true, truly, B. 1552. O.N. vitr, wise, prudent.

“& her ice wile shæwenn ȝaw

Summ þing to witter tákenn.”

(Ormulum, vol. i. p. 115.)

“Ne þe nedder was noght bitter

Þan, þowf he was ever witter;

Ffor of alle, als sheus þe boke,

Mast he cuth o crafte and crok.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 5b.)

Wytered, informed, B. 1587.

Wyterly, truly, B. 171, 1567. Dan. vitterlig, known, manifest.

Wyþe, gentle, soft, C. 454. A.S. wéthe, soft, pleasant.

Wyþer, contrary, opposite, A. 230; adverse, hostile, C. 48. S.Sax. witherr, adverse, evil. A.S. witherian, to oppose, resist. Cf. wetheruns = wetherings, enemies, T. B. 5048.

“Ga, witherr gast, o bacch fra me.”

(Ormulum, vol. ii. p. 41.)

Wyþerly, fiercely, angrily, A. 198; B. 74.

Wyth-halde, withhold, B. 740.

Wythouten, without, A. 390.

Wytles, foolish, A. 1585; B. 113.

Wytte, meaning, A. 1630; wit, A. 294; wytteȝ, devices, B. 515.


person, being, A. 131, 579; B. 545. A.S. wiga, a warrior, soldier; wig, war.

Wyȝt, quick, quickly, A. 617; B. 103. O.E. wight. Sw. vig, active.

Wyȝtly, quickly, B. 908.

“He waites vmbe hym wightly.”

(T. B. 876.)



Ydropike, dropsical, B. 1096.

Yle, isle, A. 693.

Ylle, bad, evil, C. 8.

Ynde, blue, A. 1016; B. 1411.

“Þe toiþer heu neist (to grennes) for to find,

Es al o bleu, men cals it ynd.”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 53a.)

Yow, you, A. 287.

Yor, your, A. 761.

Yre, anger, B. 775, 1240.

Yþe, wave, A. 430; B. 147. A.S. ythu, a wave, flood. S.Sax. uthe.

“Þe roghe yþes.” —T. B. 1045.

Yȝe, eye (pl. yȝen), A. 254, 302.


Ȝare = yare, plainly, accurately, A. 834. A.S. gearo, ready, prepared, accurate.

Ȝark, adj. select, A. 652; prepare, A. 1708; vb. to grant, B. 758. A.S. gearcian, to prepare, make ready. See T. B. 414.

Ȝarm, cry, B. 971. As the character ȝ in these poems always represents g or gh, ȝarm is evidently not derived from the A.S. cyrm, noise, retained in O.E. charm, a humming noise, the cry of birds, etc., but is from the Welsh garm, shout, outcry; garmio, to set up a cry, from which the A.S. cyrm, is itself derived.

Ȝate, gate, A. 1034.

Ȝe, ye, A. 381.

Ȝede (pret. of go), went, A. 526, 1049; B. 432.

Ȝederly, quickly, soon, B. 463. O.N. gedugr, exceedingly. The adjective ȝeder does not occur in the poems, but was not 216 unknown to O.E. literature. It occurs in the glossary to the Romance of King Alexander, ed. Stevenson, but is left unexplained by the editor.

“Then bownes agayn the bald kyng, baldly he wepis,

That he so skitly suld skifte and fo his skars terme;

So did his princes, sais the profe, for pete of himselfe,

With ȝedire ȝoskinges and ȝerre ȝette out to grete.”

(p. 172.)

Ȝedire ȝoskinges = great (frequent) sobbings.”

Ȝelde, yield, perform, B. 665.

Ȝellyng = yelling, outcry, B. 971. A.S. geallian, to yell. “Ȝellyn’ or hydowsly cryin’, Vociferor.” (Prompt. Parv.)

Ȝeme, protect, guard, B. 1242, 1493. A.S. géman, to care for, take care of.

Ȝemen, yeomen, A. 535.

Ȝender, yonder, B. 1617.


quick, active, bold, B. 796, 881. A.S. gæp.

“So yonge & so ȝepe.” T. B. 357.

Ȝeply, quickly, B. 665, 1708. See T. B. 414.


year, A. 483, 588.

Ȝerne = yearn, desire, A. 1190; B. 66, 758.

Ȝestande, B. 846. If from the A.S. gæston, “afflicted,” we may render this term “afflicting,” but if, as is more probable, it is from the A.S. gist, froth, yeast, we may explain it as “frothing,” “overflowing.” Cf. the phrase, “the yesty waves.”


Ȝete, offer, give, A. 558. O.E. yate (pret. yatte). O.N. géta.

“He yatte hir freli al hir bone (prayer).”

(Cott. MS. Vesp. A. iii. fol. 47a.)

Gate, in T. B. 979, seems to mean a request.

“And he hir graunted þat gate with a good wille.”

Ȝete, yet, A. 1061.

Ȝeȝed, spoke, B. 846. Prov. Ger. gaggen, to stutter, gabble.

Ȝif, if, B. 758.

Ȝise, truly, yes, C. 117.

Ȝisterday, yesterday, B. 463.

Ȝokke, yoke, B. 66.

Ȝolden, restored, B. 1708.

Ȝolpe, vb. boast, B. 846. A.S. gilpan.

Ȝomerly, sorrowful, lamentable, B. 971. A.S. geomor, sad; geomorlíc, doleful. Cf. ȝomeryng, T. B. 1722.

Ȝon, yon, A. 693; B. 772.

Ȝonde, yonder, B. 721.


young, A. 412, 474; B. 783.

Ȝore, before, A. 586. A.S. geara.

Ȝore-fader, forefather, A. 322.

Ȝore-whyle, ere-while, B. 842.

Ȝornen (3rd pers. pl. pret.), ran, B. 881. A.S. ge-yrnan, to run.

Ȝyrd, go, hasten, A. 635. The original meaning of ȝyrd is perhaps a sudden sting, blow, hence to strike, then to start forward. Goth. gazd, a sting, goad. Lat. hasta. O.E. gird, to strike.

Gird out the grete teth of the grym best.”

(T. B. 177.)

B. The word “comynes” appears at B. 1747, but the only number that fits the blank space is 111. This entry is not in the 1864 edition; the editor may have left a space, intending to come back and fill in the correct line number.

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